adv., v.

‘all around’

(Modern English umbe-)


A combination of vmbe (as a prefix) + either a nominal or verbal form of ME turn- ‘turn’, of Fr origin (cp. the parallel formation in AF entur ‘around, near to, in the company of; approximately; among; around the time of; relating to, concerning, on behalf of; busy, occupied with’). A tenuous case has been made for Scandinavian influence based on the argument that ME vmbe-torne is a reworking of the ME word found earlier as Orrm's  <ummbe-trin> ‘Round about, around; ?set around, placed around’ (TGD, GDS, following Onions 1924: 204). The ON origin of Orrm’s <ummbe-trin> is doubtful (though attempts have been made to argue it, e.g. Brate 1884: 62); it has been compared to a range of LG and Scandinavian words of similar shape, inc. MLG umme trint, Dan omtrent ‘about, approximately’, and thus it could be interpreted as a borrowing from LG, or a parallel native formation (cp. further OFris trind umbe (adv.) ‘all around’ and the OE n. <trindan> (acc. or dat. sg.) ‘round lump, ball’ at Med 3 31.14, ultimately a formation on PGmc trand- as in OE trendan ‘to turn round, revolve, roll’). The Scandinavian words themselves (cp. further ODan adj. trynd, Norw trinn, Sw trind with MLG trint ‘round’) appear to be loaned from MLG and their presence in VAN is doubtful.

PGmc Ancestor

*umƀi + 

Proposed ON Etymon (OIcel representative)

(ONP )

Other Scandinavian Reflexes

?Dan omtrent; Norw trinn, ODan trynd, Sw trind 

OE Cognate

cp. OE trendan ‘to turn round, revolve, roll’

Phonological and morphological markers

Summary category



In this form the compound occurs only at Gaw 184 and in c1450(?a1370) Winner & W.(Add 31042).

Occurrences in the Gersum Corpus

Gaw 184

Morris is alone in suggesting that Gaw MS <vmbe-torne> at 184 might be an error for vmbe-corue ‘cut round’, as the idea of cutting is already present in the v. euesed.


MED umbetorne (adv.) , OED umbe- (prefix) , HTOED , Dance vmbe-torne, Torp NnEO trint, Falk-Torp trind, Nielsen trind, Hellquist trind (1), Heid. trenda-, AEW trinda, AND entur, FEW tornare, DEAF torner (v. tr.)