v. (pres. pl.)
Gaw arn, are; Pe ar, arn, arne; Cl arn; Pat arn; Erk are; WA ere, er
'are' (Modern English are)
Proposed ON Etymon (OIcel representative)
cp. eru 'are'
(ONP vera (2) (vb.))
Other Scandinavian Reflexes
Angl aron (WMerc earun etc.) 'are'; cp. WS, Angl sind, sindon
Phonological and morphological markers
LALME dot maps 118–20 show <ar-> forms as widespread in late ME across the N, NM and EAngl, and that they also extend into the southern part of the Midlands; <er-> forms (dot maps 121–2) are by contrast predominantly a feature of the ‘Great Scandinavian Belt’.
Occurrences in the Gersum Corpus
Gaw 207, 280, 1094, etc.; Pe 384, 402, 628 etc.; Cl 8, 15, 55, etc.; Pat 13, 15; Erk 164; WA 1, 12, 14 etc.
On the distribution of forms of the pres. ind. pl. of ‘to be’ in the Gaw MS, see further Putter and Stokes 2007: 475. Morris inserts a further ar by emendation at Gaw 1510, but this was abandoned from MG onwards (see further Knott 1915: 103). Madden and Morris read Gaw 352 <haʒerer> as haʒer er, with er as a form of the pres. pl. of the v. ‘to be’, but this is corrected to a comp. form of the adj. haʒer by Maetzner and all subsequent editors.