‘fiercely’ (Modern English runish)


Adv. derived on runisch.

PGmc Ancestor

(1) ?*hrewwa-; (2) *rūnō; (3)  *xreun-

Proposed ON Etymon (OIcel representative)

(1) hrjónn 'rough'; (3) hrynja ‘to fall to ruin, tumble down; (metaph.) to stream, float (of garments); to stream, pour down (of fluids)’
(ONP (3)  hrynja (vb.))

Other Scandinavian Reflexes

(1) Icel hrjón, Norw rjone, rjøne; (3) Icel hrynja, Norw rynja, OSw rynja, Sw dial ryni

OE Cognate

(1) hrēoh, hrēow (adj.) 'rough, fierce, wild, angry; disturbed, troubled, sad; stormy tempestuous'; (2) rūn (n.) 'mystery, secrecy, secret; councel, consultation; (secret) council' and 'runic character, letter; writing'

Phonological and morphological markers

Summary category



Only recorded by MED in Gaw and Pat.

Occurrences in the Gersum Corpus

Gaw 304, *432; Pat 191

Gaw 432 MS <ruyschly> is emended by almost all editors since Madden, and it is regarded as a clear scribal error by Knott 1915: 104.  The only exception is Vantuono (n.), who (implausibly) tries to associate it with PDE rush.


MED rūnishlī (adv.) , OED3 runish (adj.1) , HTOED , Dance runischly