v. (past pl.)

(1) 'urged, hurried'; (2) 'dragged, pulled' (Modern English (1) hurried; (2) harried)


The identification of the v. <horyed> at Cl 883 ('and by þe hondeʒ hym hent and horyed hym withinne') is contested: (1) Identification with the MnE v. hurry would explain the form and sense, but the lack of subsequent attestations before c. 1600 gives the OED pause. Indeed the etymology of both the English v. and n. hurry is obscure: the OED argues that 'the earliest cited instances of the verb ... point to more immediate onomatopoeic origin, the element hurr being naturally used in various languages to express the sound of rapid vibration, and the rapid motion which it accompanies' (cp. MHG hurren 'to whir', Sw and Norw dial hurra 'to whir, whizz, whirl round', Dan hurre 'to whir', Icelandic hurr 'hurly-burly, noise'). GollCl and McGee cite only Scandinavian comparanda and that latter writes that although the etymology is uncertain, 'a connection' with the ON 'is very likely', but neither offers a specific etymon. (2) Alternatively, Vant suggests the possibility that the instance at Cl 883 could be a variant its v. herien (2) (continuing OE hergian < PGmc wk. v. *xarjōjan-, cp. with similar sense OIcel herja, OFris ur-heria, OS, OHG heriōn, herrōn) in sense (3b) 'to drag, pull'. This makes good sense in context and the spelling in <o> is a plausible variant for <a> (cp. a1400(a1325) Cursor (Vsp A.3) 1446).

PGmc Ancestor

(2) *xarjōjan-

Proposed ON Etymon (OIcel representative)

(1) cp. hurr 'hurley-burley, noise'
(ONP (1) cp. hurr (sb.))

Other Scandinavian Reflexes

cp. Icel hurr (n.); Far hurra, Icel hurra, Norw hurra, Norw dial hurra, Dan hurre 'to whir', Sw hurra, Sw dial hurra

OE Cognate

(2) hergian 'to harry'

Phonological and morphological markers

Summary category



(1) This would be the only instance before MnE. A dial v. hurr is recorded from Shetl. by EDD. (2) Common and widespread, but MED first cites its sense (3b) in Chaucer's Knight's Tale; cp. also Pat 178 Herʒed. Spellings in <o> are unusual, but not unparalleled (see etymological discussion).

Occurrences in the Gersum Corpus

Cl 883

 The v. is either glossed as 'pulled' or 'hurried', depending on its identification (see further etymological discussion).