Gaw, Pat þerwith

‘(together) with it, on that account, thereupon’ (Modern English therewith)


A compound of OE þǣr and with (cp. OE þǣrwið ‘against it, in exchange for’).

PGmc Ancestor


Proposed ON Etymon (OIcel representative)

við (with dat.) ‘against, towards, along with, with (instr.)’, (with acc.) ‘by, at, close to; at, to; together with’
(ONP við (2) (præp.))

Other Scandinavian Reflexes

Far við, viður-, Icel við, Norw ved, ODan withær, with, Dan ved, veder-, Sw vid, veder-

OE Cognate

wið (with acc.) ‘by, near, against, beside, at, through’, (with dat.) ‘from (separation), with (opposition), for, in return for, on condition of, beside, near, opposite’, (with gen.) ‘towards, to, at, against’

Phonological and morphological markers

Summary category



Widespread from early ME.

Occurrences in the Gersum Corpus

Gaw 121, 980, 1509, etc.; Cl 138, 528, 1406, etc.; Pat 60, 232

McGillivray (815n) introduces a further instance as part of (extensive) emendation of the difficult line 815 of Gaw.


MED thēr-with (adv.) , OED therewith (adv.) , HTOED , HTOED , HTOED . Dance þerwyth; see further with.