Showing 1 to 50 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
fyskez v. fisk ?‘scampers’  (2a) fýsa ‘to exhort’ (2b) fýsask ‘to wish’ D1 (2) *funsa- (1) Norw dial fjaska, Sw dial fjäska, fjaska; (2) Far fýsa, Icel fýsa, Norw fŷsa, Dan fyse Gaw 1704 View
runisch adj. runish ?‘rough, violent’ (1) hrjónn 'rough'; (3) hrynja ‘to fall to ruin, tumble down; (metaph.) to stream, float (of garments); to stream, pour down (of fluids)’ DD1c (1) ?*hrewwa-; (2) *rūnō; (3)  *xreun- (1) Icel hrjón, Norw rjone, rjøne; (3) Icel hrynja, Norw rynja, OSw rynja, Sw dial ryni Gaw 457, Cl 1545, Erk 52 View
nekard n. ?niggard ?'weakling, mean person' cp. hnøggr (adj.) DD2 ?*xnaww- Far nøggur, Icel hnøggur, Norw nøgg, Dan nygger, Sw njugg, Sw dial nagg, nägg WA 1742 View
blunt v. ?'stopped'
(1) blunda 'to have one's eyes shut, doze' DD2 (2) *linnan- (1) Far blunda, Icel blunda, Norw blund(r)a, ODan blunde, Dan blunde, OSw blund(r)a Pat 272 View
strothe n. strothe ?'small wood' (1) storð ‘grass, green stalk’ D1bc (1) *sturðō; (2) *strōð- (1) Icel storð, OSw storþahug Gaw 1710; Pe 115 View
trayþely adv. ?'pitilessly, violently'
tregða 'unwillingness, reluctance, difficulty' D1c ?*treg- Cl 907, 1137 View
trascheʒ n. trash ?'old shoes'
cp. tros 'droppings, rubbish' DD1 *trus- Norw dial trask; cp. Icel tros, Norw tros, ODan tros, Dan dial tros, Sw tross, Sw dial tråss Cl 40 View
renyschly adv. ?'mysteriously, ?violently' hrjónn 'rough' DD1c ?*hrewwa-
Icel hrjón, Norw rjone, rjøne Cl 1724, WA 4931 View
wawil-eʒid adj. ?'having eyes of differing colours'  vagl-eygr 'wall-eyed' D1c Icel vagleygur WA 1706 View
wald-eʒed adj. ?'having eyes of differing colours' (1) vald-eygðr ?'wall-eyed' D1c ?walþ- (1) Icel valdeygður WA 608 View
scelt v. ?'hasten; break out, begin; raise, mock, revile' cp. skella 'make to slam, clash; strike; scold; burst (out)' D1c *skaljan- or *skellan- cp. Far skella, Icel skella, Norw skjella, Dan skjede, Sw skälla Cl 827, 1186, 1206 etc.; ; Erk 278 View
claggid adj., v. ?'clogged, crammed' cp. kleggi 'horsefly'  CC2c ?*klaij- ODan klæg, Dan klæg  WA 5429 View
gro adj., n. ?'angry, sorrowful; horror' (1) grár 'grey; spiteful, malicious' DD2 (1) *grēwa- (1) Far gráur, Icel grár, Norw grå, Dan grå, OSw grā, Sw grå WA 3228 View
scautand adj., v. ? 'venomous, jutting out' cp. skjóta 'shoot, push, shove', skota 'shove', skúta 'jut out' DD1c ?*skeutan- WA 4200 View
rimed v. rime

Reflex., in phrase rimed hym: (1) ‘cleared his throat’; (2) ‘drew himself up’

(1b) rymja ‘to roar, cry out with a hoarse voice’


(1a) and (2) *rūmjan-

(1a) Dan rømme sig, ODan rym(m)æ, Norw rømme, OSw ryma; (1b) Far rymja, ryma, Icel rymja, OSw rymia

Gaw 308

snitered v. snitter

?‘came shivering down’

(2) cp. snið (n.) ‘slice’


(2) *snitt-

 (1) Norw dial snitra; (2) Far snið, Icel snið, Norw snid, ODan snid, sned, MSw snidh, Sw dial sned 

Gaw 2003

lake-ryftes n.

?'river valleys'

ript 'withdrawal, breach of contract'



Norw rift, Dan rift, Sw rift

Cl 536

skyg adj.





cp. Norw dial skegg, Sw dial skegg

Cl 21

warþe n. warth

?'ford, shore'

cp. vað ‘wading place, ford’



Far vað, Icel vað, Norw vad, ODan vad, Dan vad, Sw vad

Gaw 715

raþeled v. rathel


(2) raða ‘to set in order’


(2) Far raða, Icel raða, Norw rada, Sw rada

Gaw 2294

melle n.

inn ~ ‘in the midst, on all sides, among ourselves, among’

nom. sg. meðal-


dat. sg. of PGmc *meðal-

Far meðal, miðil, Icel meðal, ODan and Sw medel; Far millin, millum, Ice milli, Norw mellan, Dan mellom, mellem, Sw mellan

Gaw 1451; Pe 1127; WA 4263, 4613

skayued v. skayved

(a) ‘wild, desolate’, (b) ‘precipitously overhanging, threatening’, (c) ‘twisted’

skeifr ‘askew, oblique’



Far skeivur, Icel skeifur, Norw skeiv, ODan skev, Dan skæv, OSw skēver, Sw skev

Gaw 2167

werle n.

(1a) ?'circlet, circular ornament'; (1b) 'circle, ring (of hair)'; (2) 'attire, covering'

hvirfill 'circle, ring, crown of the head'


(1a) *xwarƀilaz; (1b) *xwerƀilaz; (2) *was(j)an-

Far hvir(v)il, Icel hvirfill, Norw kvirvel, kvervil, Dan hvirvel, Sw (h)virvel

Pe 209

wylyde adj. wild

(1a) ‘wild, i.e. licentious, amorous’, (1b) ‘cruel’ (~ werke ‘cruel act’);  (2) ‘choice’ (~ werke ‘choice handiwork’);  (3a) ‘guileful’ (~ werke ‘intrigue’), (3b) ‘skilful’

(2) vildr (vilðr) ‘chosen, choice, good’; (3) ?vél ‘wile, device, trick’


(1) *welþja-; (2) *wel-; (3) (1) *wīl-, wīgel- or ?*wihl-

(2) Icel vildur, ODan vildh, MSw vilder, Sw dial viller; (3) ?Far væl, Icel vél, Norw vēl, MSw väl

Gaw 2367

draueled v. dravel

(1)  ‘muttered (in sleep)’; (2) ‘drawled’

(1a) drafl (n.) ‘nonsense, foolish talk/conduct’, cp. drafa ‘to mumble, say (something) indistinctly’,


(1) *draƀ-; (1b) *draƀil- or *draƀulō(j)an-

(1a) Icel drafl, Dan dravel, Sw dravel; Icel drafla, Norw dravla 

Gaw 1750

breth n. (1) breath

(1) breath; (2) 'fury'

(2) bræði 'anger, fury'



(2) Far bræði, Icel bræði, Norw bræde, OSw bræþe

Cl 916

blose n.

(1) ?’rough uncouth person’; (2) 'ugly sight'; (3) and (4) ?’flame’

(3) blossi ‘flame’; cp. blys ‘torch’


(3) *ƀlus- or ƀlūs-; (4) blās-

(3) Icel blossi, Norw bluss, Dan blus, OSw blus, blos; cp. Icel blys

Pe 911

typped adj., v. ?tipped

(1) ?'consummate'; (2) 'fallen'

(1) typpa 'to tip, top', cp. typptr (adj.) 'tipped, laced'


(1) Icel typpa, Norw typpa; (2) Sw tippa

Pat 77

reget n., v.

(1) (v.) ‘get again, redeem’, ?(2) (n.) ‘that which is given up’ (3) (*refet) (v.) ‘refresh’

(1) geta 'get, engender'


(1) *getan-

(1) Far gita, Icel geta, Norw gita, gjeta, Dan gide, OSw gita, gæta, Sw gitta, Sw dial gäta

Pe 1064

twynnen v. twine

(1) (pp.) ‘twined, plaited’ (or pres. pl. 'twine, plait');  (2) (pres. pl.) ‘match’

(1) tvinni ‘twine, twisted thread’; (2) tvennr (tvinnr) cp. 'two-fold, twin, in pairs'



(1) Icel tvinni, Dan tvinde, Sw tvinna; (2) Far tvinnur, Icel tvennur, Norw tvinn, tvenne, ODan tvinnæ, tvænnæ, Dan tvende, OSw tvænne, tvinn-, Sw tvenne

Gaw 191

vnhap (2) n., v. unhap

(1) (n.) ‘misfortune’; (2) (v., infin.) ‘to unfasten’

(1) óhapp ‘bad fortune’


(1) *xap(p)-; (2) *haf-, *hasp-, or *haft-

(1) Far happ, Icel happ, Norw happ, Sw dial happ; (2) Far hefta, Icel hefta, Norw hefta, Dan hefte, Sw häfta 

Gaw 2511

lyte n., pron. lite

(1) (n.) ‘expectation’ (i.e. ‘back (in fear) Gaw 1463; on lyte ‘in delay’, Gaw 2303); (2) (a) (pron.) ‘few’ (on lyte droʒen ‘few advanced’, 1463); (b) (n.) ‘fault’ (on lyte ‘at fault, faultily, improperly’)

(1) hlíta ‘to rely on, trust, abide by’; (2a) lítt (adv.) ‘little’; (2b) lýti ‘fault, flaw, deformity’


(1) *hlītan-; (2a) lūti- or lītilaz; (2b) *leut-

(1) Far líta, Icel hlíta, Norw lita, Dan lide, OSw lita, Sw lita; (2a) Far lítt, Icel lítt, Dan lidt; (2b) Far lýti, Icel lýti, Norw lyte, Dan lyde, Sw lyte

Gaw 1463, 2303

heme adj., n. (1) heme; (2) hem

(1) (adj.) ‘suitable, neat’; (2) (n.) ‘hem, skirt’

(1) cp. heimolliga, heimulliga (later heimugliga) ‘privately, intimately; duly, with full title to possession’


(1) *xaimaz; (2) *xam(m)-

(1) cp. Icel heimileg(u)r, Norw heimeleg, Dan hemmelig, Sw heimlig

Gaw 157

scholes adj., n. (1) shoeless; (2) soles

(1) (adj.) ‘shoeless’;  (2) (n. pl.) ‘shoes with long pointed toes’; (3) (n. pl.) ‘thin plates (part of the horse’s armour)’; (4) (n. pl.) ‘protections under and inside the thighs’; (5) (n. pl.) ‘supports covering the sole of the foot’.

(1) skólauss 'shoeless'; (4) skál ‘bowl, hollow; scales’


(1) *skōhaz; (3) *skullōn; (4) *skēl-

(1) Far skógvur, Icel skór, Norw sko, Dan sko, Sw sko; (3) Sw skolla; (4) Far skál, Icel skál, Norw skål, Dan skål, Sw skål

Gaw 160

spenne-fote adv. spen-foot

(1) (a) ?‘with feet apart’;  (b) ‘with feet together’;  (2) ‘striking out with the feet’;  (3) ‘as if taking a spring with a kick’;  (4) ‘quickly’

(1) spenna (v.) ‘to span, clasp’; (3) spenna (v.) ‘(to jump) as if taking a spring with a kick’ (cp. sperna (v.) ‘to spurn, kick with the feet’); (4) spenna ‘to spend, enjoy’


(1) *span(n)-; (2) *spennan-; (4) *spendan-

(1) Far spenna, Icel spenna, Norw spenna, Dan spænde, Sw spänna; (3) Far spenna, Norw spenna, Dan spænde, Sw dial spänna; (4) Icel spenna

Gaw 2316

slokes n., v. slock

(1) (a) (v., imp. pl.) ‘stop, enough!’, (b) (v., pres. 2 sg.) ‘you are dawdling’, (c) (n., pl.) ‘stops’ (bot ~, ‘without stops, continuously’);  (2) (v., pres. 2 sg.) ‘thou remainest idle, inactive’.

(1) slokinn ‘slaked, extinguished’; (2a) sloka ‘to slop’; (2b) slókr ‘a slouching fellow’


(1) *sluk- ; (2a) *sluk-; (2b) *slōk- (cp. *slaka-)

(1) Icel slokinn, OSw slukin; (2a) Icel sloka; (2b) Icel slókur, Norw slōk, Sw slok, Jutland slog; cp. (v.) Norw dial slōka, Sw sloka

Gaw 412

neme v. (1) nim; (2) nemn

(1) (a) ‘took’ (pret. pl.), (b) ‘take’ (pres. pl.); (2) ‘name’ (pres. pl.; neme for, ‘name as’)

(1) nema ‘to take’


(1) *neman-; (2) *namnjan-

(1) Far nema, Icel nema, Norw nema, ODan nimmæ, Dan nemme, OSw næma, nima, Sw dial nimma

Gaw 1347

spenne (1) n. spen

(1) (a) ‘space, interval’; (b) ‘struggle, strife’; (c) ‘enclosed ground’ (in ~ ‘there, in that place’); (2) ‘ground, space of turf’ (in ~ ‘there’); (3) ‘thorn bush, thorn hedge, thorn thicket’

(1a) spenna ‘to span, clasp’; (1b) spenna ‘agitation, struggle’; (1c) spenni ‘clasp’


(1) *span(n)-

(1a) Far spenna, Icel spenna, Norw spenna, Dan spænde, Sw spänna; (1b) Icel spenna; (1c) Far spenni, Icel spenni, Norw spenne, Sw spänne

Gaw 1074

knot n. knot

(1) (a) ‘knot, cluster’, (b) (*kerre) ‘thicket on marshy ground’; (2) ‘rocky (wooded) knoll’.

(1b) kjarr 'copsewood, brushwood’; (2b) knǫttr ‘ball’  


(1a) *knuttan-; (1b) *kerza; (2a) *knuttan-(2b) *knatt-

(1b) Far (name element) kjarr, Icel kjarr, Norw kjarr, kjerr, Dan kær, Sw kärr 

Gaw 1431, 1434

toruayle n.

(1) (trauayle) ‘hard task’; (2) (toruayle) ‘hard task’, ‘difficulty’.

(2) torveldi (fem. or neut.) ‘a difficulty’


(2) *tor- + *waldi-

(2) Far tor-, Icel tor-, Norw tor-, Sw dial tor-

Gaw 1540

laucyng n., v. (1) lance; (2) loosing

(1) (forlancyng) ‘throwing out’ (pres. ptcp.);  (2) (laucyng) ‘loosening’ (vbl. n.)

(2) lauss (adj.) ‘loose, free (etc.)’ 


(2) *lausa-

(2) Far leysur, Icel laus, Norw laus, Dan løs, Sw lös

Gaw 1334

list n. list

(1) (*list vpon lif) ‘joy’; (2) ‘the ear, hearing’

(1) lyst ‘lust, desire’, lysta v. 'one desires, wishes (impers.)'



(1) *lust-i- or *lustjan-; (2) *hlusti-

(1) Far lyst, Icel lyst, Norw lyst, Dan lyst, MSw lyst, lust, Sw lust; Far lysta, Icel lysta, Norw lysta, Dan lyste, Sw lysta

Gaw 1719

*dyngez v. (1) ding; (2) damn

(1) (*dyngez) ‘smites’; (2) (dymnez) ‘condemns’

(1) dengja ‘to hammer (metal), forge; urge/press, ask persistently’ 


(1) *dang(w)jan- or *dengwan-

(1) Far deingja, Icel dengja, Norw dengja, Dan dænge, OSw dængia, Sw dial däng(j)a

Gaw 2105

*vntyl prep. (1) until

(1) (*vntyl) ‘until’;  (2) (vntyʒtel) ‘unrestraint, lightheartedness’ (dalten ~ ‘revelled’) or ‘trifling talk’

(1) undz, unz ‘till that, till, until’ + til ‘to, until (etc.)'


(1) *unða + *til-; (2) *tuhtiz

(1) Icel uns; Far til, Icel til, Norw til, Dan til, Sw till, til

Gaw 1114

*sparred v. (1) spar; (2) speed

(1) (*sparred) ‘sprang’;  (2) (*sped(e) (him)) ‘hastened’

(1a) sparra 'to stretch out (the legs)’, sperrask ‘to struggle (by putting the feet out)’; (1b) sparra ‘to raise the spars in a house; to stretch out the legs like rafters’, sperrask ‘to struggle by putting the feet out like spars’


(1a) *sparrjan-; (1b) *sparr-; (2) *spōdi-

(1a) Far sperra, Icel sperra, Norw sperra, Dan spærre, Sw spärra

Gaw 1444

schifted v. (1) shift; (2) shaft

(1) (*schifted) ‘shifted, declined’; (2) (MS schafted) (a) ‘beamed, shone forth’, (b) ‘set’

(1) skifta, skipta ''to order, arrange'


(1) *skiptian- or *skipatjan-; (2) *skaft-

(1) Far skifta, Icel skipta, skifta, Norw skifta, ODan skiftæ, Dan skifte, Sw skifta

Gaw 1467

*þwarte-knot n. (1) thwart; (2) thwarl

(1) (*þwarte-knot) ‘cross knot’;  (2) (þwarle knot) ‘tight knot’, ‘intricate knot’, ‘twirled knot’

(1) þverr ‘athwart, across, transverse’


(1) *þwerxwaz; (2b) *þwer- or *þwar-; (2c) *xwerƀan-

(1) Far tvørur, Icel þver, Norw tver, ODan thwær, Dan tvær, OS þvær, þvar

Gaw 194

forʒ n. (1) force; (2) furrow

(1) ‘waterfall’; (2) ‘channel, bed’

(1) fors ‘waterfall; cascade of water, giant wave; rushing water course, turbulent stream’ 


(1) *fursa-; (2) *furxō

(1) Far forsur, Icel fors, foss, Norw fors, foss, Dan fors, fos, Sw fors

Gaw 2173

rout n. rout

(1) ‘violent movement, jerk’; (2) ‘roar’

(1) hrjóta ‘to rebound, fall, fly, be flung’; (2) rauta ‘to roar’


(1) *xreut- or *xrūt-; (2) *raut-

(1) Far róta, Icel hrjóta, Norw ryta, rjota, OSw riuta; (2) Icel rauta, Norw rauta, OSw röta, Sw dial röta, routa

Gaw 457

quethe n. (1) queath

(1) ‘utterance’;  (2) ‘advance’

kviðr ‘saw, saying, speech, word’; kvæði ‘poem, song’


(1) *kweþ-; (2) *kwak-

(1) Far kvæði, Icel kviður, kvæði, Norw kvæde, ODan kvæde, Sw kväde

Gaw 1150