Showing 101 to 150 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
boster n. boaster 'boaster' (1) cp. busilkinna ?’woman with round cheeks’ DD1 (1) *bus- (1) Norw bos(s), OSw bos Cl 1499 View
bodworde n. bodeword 'message' boð-orð 'message, command, etc.' CC4c *ƀudan + *wurdan Cl 473; Erk 105; WA 48, 1458, 1489 View
bole n. bole 'tree trunk' bolr, bulr ‘tree trunk; torso’ BB2ac ?*ƀol- Far bulur, Icel bolur, Norw bul, Dan bul, Sw bål Gaw 766; Pe 76; Cl 622; WA 2851, 4851, *4994, etc. View
bolne v. bolne 'to swell' bolgna ‘to swell, bulge’ CC1c *belgan- Icel bólginn, Norw bolgen, Dan bullen, OSw bulghin, bulin Gaw 512; Pe 18; Cl 179, 363; WA 396, 4435 View
bone n. boon 'request, boon, command, bidding' bón ‘petition, request’ C1 *bōn-  Icel bón; cp. Far bøn, Icel bœn, Norw bøn, ODan bǿn, Dan bøn, OSw bǿn, Sw bön Gaw 327; Pe 912, 916, 1090; Cl 826; Pat 136; Erk 194 View
bos n. boose 'cow-house, manger' báss 'a stall in a cow-house' CCC1 *ƀan(d)sa- Far básur, Icel bás, Norw bås, Dan bås, Sw bås Cl 1075 View
boþe n. booth

'booth, arbour'

búð 'booth, temporary building or tent'



Far búð, Icel búð, Norw bu, bud, Dan bod, Sw bod

Pat 441

boþe adj., adv., pron. both


báðir 'both'


*bai- + *þai-z (etc.)

Far báðir, Icel báðir, Norw både, beggje, Dan både, beggje, Sw både, begga

Gaw 18, 111, 129, etc.; Pe 90, 329, 373 etc.; Cl 11, 20, 57 etc.; Pat 36, 134, 136 etc.; Erk 194

boun adj. bound

‘ready; bound, setting out; arranged, fixed’

búinn ‘ready, prepared, finished, willing, favourably disposed (towards sth.), obedient, submissive’


*bō(w)an or *bū(w)an-

Icel búinn, Norw buen

Gaw 548, 852, 1311, etc.; Pe 534, 992, 1103, Erk 181; WA 323, 534, 870 etc.

bawelyne n. bowline





Cl 417; Pat 104

braken n. bracken 'bracken, fern' *brakni B1c ?*ƀrak- Dan bregne, Sw bräken Cl 1675 View
brayd n. braid

'sudden movement; (in/at a b.) forthwith'

bragð 'sudden motion, etc.'; cp. auga-bragð 'twinkling of an eye, instant, moment'



Far bragdbragð, Icel bragð, Norw bragd, Sw bragd, Sw dial bragd

Cl 537, 1507

bred n. bread 'bread'
brauð 'bread' CCC3a *brauðan Far breyð, Icel brauð, Norw braud, brød, Dan brød, Sw bröd Gaw 891, 1361, 1610; Cl 620, 636, 1105 View
brent adj. brent 'steep' bretta ‘to turn upwards’; cp. brattr ‘steep, precipitous; arduous, hard’ CC1c *brant-  Far bretta, Icel bretta, Norw bretta, ODan brente, Dan dial brette, OSw bränta, Sw dial brätta; Far, Icel brattur, Norw bratt, Dan brat, OSw branter, Sw brant, Sw dial bratt Gaw 2165; Pe 106; Cl 379; WA 3648, 4812 View
breue v. breve

‘to declare, announce; write down’

bréfa ‘to set down in writing, report, make a précis; document’


Icel bréfa

Gaw 465, 1393, 1436, etc.; Pe 755; Cl 197; Erk 103

brynston n. brimstone


cp. brenna (v.) 'to burn (intrans. and trans.)', brennusteinn 'sulphur'


*ƀrennan- or *ƀrannjan-

Cl 967

bruny n. brinie, brynie


brynja ‘cuirass, hauberk, coat of chain mail’ 



Far brynja, Icel brynja, Norw brynje, ODan brynje, OSw brynia, brönia

Gaw 580, 861, 2012 etc.

brenke n. brink

'bank, edge'

brekka 'hillside, slope'



Far brekka, Icel brekka, Norw brekka, brekke, Dan brink, Sw dial bräkka, brikka

Cl 384; WA 669, 4377, 4741

britten v. britten ‘to break up, destroy; cut (up)’ brjóta ‘to break, damage, wreck (etc.)', brytja ‘to chop into pieces, quarter; cut into portions and serve’ CC3c *ƀrut- Far bróta, Icel brjóta, Norw brjota, Dan bryde, Sw bryta; Far brytja, Icel brytja, Norw brytja Gaw 2, 680, 1339 etc.; WA 1307, 1328, 2479 etc. View
breþer n. brother

'brothers (in arms)'

bróðir 'brother'



Far bróðir, Icel bróðir, Norw broder, Dan broder, Sw broder

Gaw 39

brunt n. brunt

'sudden movement, rush; sharp blow'

cp. bruna  (v.) ‘to move (like fire), surge, come rushing’



Pe 174; WA 783, 3934

bulk n. bulk

'hold (of a ship)'

bulki 'cargo that is secured (amidships)'



Icel búlki, Norw bulk, bolk, Dan bulk, Sw bulk

Pat 292

bullez n. bulls

'(wild) bulls'

boli 'bull'



Icel boli, Norw bol, ODan bul

Gaw 722; Cl 55, 392, 1682

brenne v. burn

‘to burn; broil; (pp.) refined, bright’

brenna 'to burn (intrans. and trans.)'


*ƀrennan- or *ƀrannjan-

Far brenna, Icel brenna, Norw brenna, Dan brænde, Sw brinna; Far brenna, Icel brenna, Norw brenna, ODan brænnæ, Dan brænde, OSw bränna, Sw bränna

Gaw 2, 195, 832, etc.; Pe 989; Cl 509, 916, 1012; Pat 472, 477

borne n. burn 'stream' cp. brunnr, bruðr ‘well-spring, spring, stream; source, origin; well, reservoir, watering place’ CCC5 *ƀrunn- Far brunnur, Icel brunnur, Norw brunn, brynn, Dan brønd, Sw brunn Gaw 731, 1570, 2174; Pe 974; Cl 482 View
brestes v. burst

'break; burst'

bresta ‘to crack, crash; snap, break, be split open; give way, break loose (etc.)’



Far bresta, Icel bresta, Norw bresta, Dan briste, Sw brista

Gaw 1166; Cl 1263, 1783; Pat 148; WA 510, 728*, 789, etc.

busk v. busk ‘to get ready, array, dress, make haste (intrans.); make (trans.); go, betake oneself, drive’ búask, 'to prepare oneself, get oneself ready (to leave), set out, dress oneself’   A2*c *ƀōwwan- + reflexive (acc.) *sek(e) Far búgva, Icel búa, Norw bu(a), Dan bo, Sw bo Gaw 509, 1128, 1136 etc.; Cl 142, 333, 351, etc.; Pat 437 Erk 112; WA 373, 774, 811* etc. View
cakled v. cackle 'cackled' BBB2a Norw kakla, kagle, Dan kagle, Sw kackla Gaw 1412 View
kakeʒ n. cake 'cake' kaka 'cake' B1 *kakōn Far kaka, Icel kaka, Norw kaka, kake, Dan kage, Sw kaka Cl 625, 635 View
cal n. call


kalla (v.) ‘to call, cry, shout; send for; say; claim; name’; cp. kall 'a call, cry, shouting'


*kall- or *kalz- 

Far kall, Icel kall, Norw kall, Dan kald, Sw kall; cp. Far kalla, Icel kalla, Norw kalla, Dan kalde, Sw kalla

Cl 61

calle v. call ‘to call, shout, cry out (intr.), crave, beg; call, name, summon (tr.)’ kalla ‘to call, cry, shout; send for; say; claim; name’ C1a *kall- or *kalz-  Far kalla, Icel kalla, Norw kalla, Dan kalde, Sw kalla Gaw 456, 664, 807, etc.; Pe 173, 182, 273, etc.; Cl 8, 162, 258, etc.; Pat 26, 131, 281, etc.; Erk 16; WA 229, 431, 559, etc. View
callyng n. calling


kalla (v.) ‘to call, cry, shout; send for; say; claim; name’


*kall- or *kalz-

Far kalla, Icel kalla, Norw kalla, Dan kalde, Sw kalla

Cl 1362

caple n. caple, capul


kapall ‘nag, hack’


Icel kapall

Gaw 2175; Cl 1254

carle n. carl


karl 'man, common man'



Far kallur, Icel karl, Norw kall, kar, Dan karl, runic Sw karilR, Sw karl

Cl 208, 876

carp v. carp

'to speak, say, converse'

karpa 'to brag, boast'


Icel karpa, Sw dial karpa

Gaw 263, 360, 377 etc.; Pe 381, 752, 949; Cl 74, 1591; Erk 317; WA 8, 100, 108 etc.

carping n. carping

'speech, words'

karpa 'to brag, boast'


Icel karpa, Sw dial karpa

Cl 1550

ker n. carr ‘thicket on marshy ground’ kjarr 'copsewood, brushwood’  A1bc *kerza- Far (name element) kjarr, Icel kjarr, Norw kjarr, kjerr, Dan kær, Sw kärr  Gaw 1421, 1431 View
caryez v. carry 'rides, goes' keyra ‘to drive, ride, whip’ FC3 *kaurjan- or *kauzjan- Far koyra, Icel kayra, Norw køyra, Dan køre, Sw köra Gaw 734 View
kart n. cart


kartr 'cart'



Icel kartur, Norw kart

Cl 1259

cartis n. cart 'chariot, cart' kartr 'cart' CC2 *krat- Icel kartur, Norw kart WA 3058, 3629 View
kest v. cast

‘to throw, sprinkle (water), put; lift; offer, make; utter; aim; ponder; speak; scatter; cast out, remove; scheme’

kasta ‘to cast, throw’



Far kasta, Icel kasta, Norw kasta, Dan kaste, Sw kasta

Gaw 64, 228, 249 etc.; Pe 66, 861, 1122 etc.; Cl 234, 414, 460 etc.; Pat 153, 154, 157, etc.; Erk 83, 317; WA 138, 163, 184 etc. 

kest n. cast

‘throwing, stroke; trick; ?fastening; (pl.) speech, utterances, glance, contrivance; purpose'

kast ‘throw, turn’



Far kast, Icel kast, Norw kast 

Gaw 1295, 2298, 2376 etc.; Pe 1163; Cl 768, 1070; WA 1302, 1395,1764 etc.

chaffer n. chaffer

‘trade, merchandise’

kaupfǫr ‘trading journey’ 


*kaupaz + *farō

Gaw 1647, 1939

chymbled v. chymble

'bound, wrapped up'

kimbla ‘to truss up’



Icel kimbla; cp. Far kimbil, kimbul, Icel kimbill, Norw kimbel, kimmel

Gaw 958

clambere v. clamber

(1) ‘to cluster’; (2) ‘to clamber’

(1) klambra ‘to clamp or pinch together’



(1) Far klombra, Icel klambra, Norw klemb(r)a 

Gaw 801, 1722

clyff n. cliff ‘cliff, (high) rock’  klif 'cliff' CCC5a *klib- Far kliv, Icel klif, Sw dial kliv Gaw 713, 1166, 1431, etc.; Cl 405, 460, 965 View
clynt n. clint

'rocky cliff'

klettr 'cliff (in the landscape), cliff-face, crag, bluff, escarpment'



Far klettur, Icel klettur, Norw klett, Dan klint, OSw klinter, Sw klint, Sw dial klätt

WA 4830

klubbe n. club 'club' klubba 'club' B1 Far klubbi, Norw klubba, klubbe, ODan klubbe, Dan klubbe, Sw klubba, Sw dial klubba Cl 839, 1348 View
costez v. coast

(1) ‘coasts, passes by the side of’; (2) ‘gives (full bright) quality to’; (3) ‘drives’

(2) kostr ‘condition, choice, opportunity (etc.)’; (3) kasta ‘to cast, throw’


(2) *kustiz or *kustuz; (3) *kastō(j)an-

(2) Far kostur, Icel kostur, Norw kost, ODan kost, OSw koster; (3) Far kasta, Icel kasta, Norw kasta, Dan kaste, Sw kasta

Gaw 1696

cost n. cost ‘nature, quality; terms; manners, ways, disposition; condition, plight’ kostr ‘condition, choice, opportunity (etc.)’ C1ac *kust-iz or *kust-uz Far kostur, Icel kostur, Norw kost, ODan kost, Dan kost, OSw koster Gaw 546, 750, 944, etc.; Cl 1024, 1478 View