Showing 151 to 200 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
cauels n. 'splinters' kafli 'cut off piece', kefli 'small piece of wood, club, round stick' B2c ?*kaƀl- Far kalvur, Icel kafli, Norw kavl, kavle, Dan kavl, kavle, Sw kavle, Sw dial kavel; Icel kefli, Norw kjevle, Sw dial kävle WA 799 View
cayser n. 'emperor, ruler' keisari 'emperor' C2 *kaisar- Far keisari, Icel keisari, Norw keisar, Dan kejser, Sw kejsare Cl 1322, 1374, 1593; Erk 199 View
chaffer n. chaffer

‘trade, merchandise’

kaupfǫr ‘trading journey’ 

CCC4

*kaupaz + *farō

Gaw 1647, 1939

View
(child)-gered adj. (1) gear; (2) gere; (3) cheer

'boyish, merry'

(1) gervi, gørvi ‘gear, apparel’; (2)  gerr ‘greedy’

DD1

(1) *garwj-; (2) *ger-

(1) Icel gervi; (2) Icel gerr, Norw gjer 

Gaw 86 

View
chymbled v. chymble

'bound, wrapped up'

kimbla ‘to truss up’

CCC1c

*kemb-

Icel kimbla; cp. Far kimbil, kimbul, Icel kimbill, Norw kimbel, kimmel

Gaw 958

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claggid adj., v. ?'clogged, crammed' cp. kleggi 'horsefly'  CC2c ?*klaij- ODan klæg, Dan klæg  WA 5429 View
clambere v. clamber

(1) ‘to cluster’; (2) ‘to clamber’

(1) klambra ‘to clamp or pinch together’

DD2

*klamb-r-

(1) Far klombra, Icel klambra, Norw klemb(r)a 

Gaw 801, 1722

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clyff n. cliff ‘cliff, (high) rock’  klif 'cliff' CCC5a *klib- Far kliv, Icel klif, Sw dial kliv Gaw 713, 1166, 1431, etc.; Cl 405, 460, 965 View
clynt n. clint

'rocky cliff'

klettr 'cliff (in the landscape), cliff-face, crag, bluff, escarpment'

B2abc

*klentaz

Far klettur, Icel klettur, Norw klett, Dan klint, OSw klinter, Sw klint, Sw dial klätt

WA 4830

View
clyntirand adj. 'rocky' klettr (n.) 'cliff (in the landscape), cliff-face, crag, bluff, escarpment' B2ab *klentaz WA 4863 View
clypper n.

‘shearer’

klippa (v.) 'to clip'

B2c

?*klipp-

Far klippa, Norw klippa, Dan klippe, Sw klippa, Sw dial klöppa, Shetl klipp

Pe 802

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cnokez v. knock 'knock, deal a blow' knoka ‘to knock, thump’ CCC2a *knok- or *knuk- Icel knoka, Norw knoka, ODan knoge, Dan knuge, Sw dial knoka, knåka Gaw 414; Pe 727; Cl 1348; WA 639, 1599 View
come n.

'coming, arrival'

kváma ‘coming, arrival, visit’

CCC2

*kweman- or *kuman-

Norw dial kome, kōma, OSw kōma

Pe 1117; Cl 467, 1706

View
connyng n. 'understanding, arts' kunnandi 'knowledge' CCC3 *kunnan- Cl 1611, 1625 View
cost n. cost ‘nature, quality; terms; manners, ways, disposition; condition, plight’ kostr ‘condition, choice, opportunity (etc.)’ C1ac *kust-iz or *kust-uz Far kostur, Icel kostur, Norw kost, ODan kost, Dan kost, OSw koster Gaw 546, 750, 944, etc.; Cl 1024, 1478 View
costez v. coast

(1) ‘coasts, passes by the side of’; (2) ‘gives (full bright) quality to’; (3) ‘drives’

(2) kostr ‘condition, choice, opportunity (etc.)’; (3) kasta ‘to cast, throw’

DD2

(2) *kustiz or *kustuz; (3) *kastō(j)an-

(2) Far kostur, Icel kostur, Norw kost, ODan kost, OSw koster; (3) Far kasta, Icel kasta, Norw kasta, Dan kaste, Sw kasta

Gaw 1696

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craue v. crave ‘to claim, ask for, crave, beg’ krefja ‘to crave, demand, call on one’ BB1 *kraƀ- (prob.*kraƀo(j)an-) Far krevja, Icel krefja, Norw krevja, Dan kræve, Sw kräva Gaw 277, 283, 812, etc.; Cl 810 View
croked adj. crooked

'crooked, astray, dishonest'

krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’ 

BB1b

?*krōk-

Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Gaw 653; Cl 181, 1697

View
crokeʒ n. crook

‘sickles’

krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’

BB2b

?*krōk-

Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Pe 40

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cros n. cross

'cross'

kross 'cross'

FC5b

Far krossur, Icel, Norw kross, Dan kors, Sw kors

Gaw 762; Erk 2

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croun n. crown 'crown; crown of the head; tonsure' krúna ‘crown’ FCCC2a Far krúna, Icel krúna, Norw krune, kruna, Dan krone, Sw krona Gaw 364, 419, 616, etc.; Pe 427, 1100; Cl 1275; Erk 55, 222 View
dale n. dale ‘(bottom of) valley’ dalr ‘valley; hollow, depression (in the landscape)’ CC5ab *dala- Far dalur, Icel dalur, Norw dal, Dan dal, Sw dal Gaw 1151, 2005, 2162; Pe 121; Cl 384 View
dam n. dam

‘body of water (in a conduit or artificial pool), sea, flood’

dammr ‘weir, weir-pool, pond’

BBB2abc

*damm-

Far dammur, Icel dammur, Norw damm, Dan dam, Sw damm

Pe 324; Cl 416; Pat 312; WA 3928

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dare v. dare 'to cower, shrink' DD1 Far darra, Norw darra, Sw darra Gaw 315, 2258; Pe 609, 839 View
dasches adj., v. dash

'rushing'

BBB2

Dan daske, Sw daska

Pat 312; WA 3882

View
dased adj., v. dazed

‘to be bewildered, dazed; to be numb’

*dasa, cp. dasaðr ‘exhausted, worn out’, dasast 'to become weary'

B1c

*das-

Icel dasa, Norw dasa, Dan dase, Sw dasa

Pe 1085; Cl 1538; Pat 383; WA 3044, 3997

View
daylyeden v. dally

(1) ‘trifle, make (courtly) love; converse, contend, dispute’; (2) ‘bandy pleasantries’

(2) deila ‘to divide, apportion’ (etc.); ‘to contend, quarrel’

DD2

(2) *dail-

(2) Far deila, Icel deila, Norw deila, Sw dela

Gaw 1114; Pe 313

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deʒe v. die 'to die' deyja ‘to die’ C1a *daw-jan-  Far doggja, Icel deyja, Norw døya, Dan , Sw Gaw 996, 1163, 2460; Pe 306, 642, 705, etc.; Cl 400, 1329; Pat 488; Erk 246; WA 692, 990, 1033 etc. View
demerlayke n.

'magic arts'

leikr ‘game, play, sport’ 

A1*bc

*laikaz

Far leikur, Icel leikur, Norw leik, Dan leg, OSw leker, Sw lek

Cl 1561, 1578

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derf adj.

‘bold, audacious, doughty, stout; great, astonishing; grievous, severe’

djarfr ‘courageous, aggressive, dauntless; heedless, impudent’ 

C1ac

*derƀ- 

Far djarvur, Icel djarfur, Norw djerv, Dan djerv, Sw djärv

Gaw 558, 564, 1000, etc.; Cl 862; Pat 166; Erk 99; WA 1024, 1211, 1811, etc.

View
derþe n. dearth

‘splendour’

dýrð ‘glory, splendour’

CC1c

*deuriþ-

Far dýrd, Icel dýrð, Sw dyrd

Pe 99

View
deruely adv.

'boldy'

djarfr (adj.) ‘courageous, aggressive, dauntless; heedless, impudent', djarfliga (adv.) 'bravely, boldly, daringly, dauntlessly; rashly, precipitously, impudently; without reservation; roundly, immoderately' 

C1ac

*derƀ- 

Far djarvur, Icel djarfur, Norw djerv, Dan djerv, Sw djärv

Gaw 2334; Cl 632, 1641; Pat 110

View
deuely adj. deavely

(1) ‘desolating, dreary’; (2) (*deruely) sudden

(1) daufligr ‘boring, dreary, eerie, sad’; (2) djarfliga (adv.) ‘bravely, boldy; rashly, precipitously’

D2

(1) dauƀ-; (2) *derƀ-

Pe 51

View
dike n. dike, dyke 'fosse, ditch' díki 'dike, ditch' CCC2 *dīk- Far díki, Icel díki, Norw dike, dik, Dan dige, Sw dike WA 700, 712, 2986 etc. View
dok n. dock ‘tail’ or perhaps ‘trimmed hair (of tail, etc.)’  cp. dokk, dokka 'windlass' B2 *ðukk- Icel dokkur, Norw dokke; Icel dokk, Norw dokka, Sw docka Gaw 193 View
donkande v. dank ‘moistening’ dǫkk ‘?hollow, pit, ?swampy tract, fen’ BB1c *ðank-  Icel dokk, dökk, Norw dokk, Sw dial dank, dakk; dänke  Gaw 519 View
dowelle v. dwell 'to remain; dwell; exist' dvelja ‘to keep/hold back, detain, stall, impede; delay, defer; tarry, hesitate; stay, reside, dwell (etc.)' CC3 *ðwaljan- Far dvølja, Icel dvelja, Norw dvelja, Dan dvæle, OSw dvälia Gaw 566, 1075, 1082; Cl 158, 376, 1196, etc.; Pa 69, 422; Erk 10 View
dowue n. dove

'dove'

dúfa 'dove'

CC4a

*dūƀōn

Far dúgva, dúva, Icel dúfa, Norw duva, duve, Dan due, Sw duva

Cl 469, 481, 485

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draʒt n. draught

'drawbridge; character (in writing)'

dráttr ‘pulling, hauling, driving force; catching (fish) (etc.)’

CCC1a

*drag- 

Far dráttur, Icel dráttur, Norw drått, Dan dræt, Sw dial drätt

Gaw 817; Cl 1557

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draueled v. dravel

(1)  ‘muttered (in sleep)’; (2) ‘drawled’

(1a) drafl (n.) ‘nonsense, foolish talk/conduct’, cp. drafa ‘to mumble, say (something) indistinctly’,

DD2

(1) *draƀ-; (1b) *draƀil- or *draƀulō(j)an-

(1a) Icel drafl, Dan dravel, Sw dravel; Icel drafla, Norw dravla 

Gaw 1750

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dreʒ adv. dree, dreigh

'forcibly'

drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)'

CC3ac

*dreug-

Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg

Gaw 2263

View
dreʒly adv. dreely, dreighly ‘unceasingly, strongly, utterly, gravely’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Gaw 1026; Pe 125, 223; Cl 74, 344, 476; Pat 235 View
dreme n. dream

'dreaming; dream, vision'

draumr ‘dream, vision’

C3ac

*draumaz (< root of *dreug- or *dreusan- ?)

Far dreymur, Icel draumur, Norw draum, Dan drøm, Sw dröm

Gaw 1750; Pe 790, 1170; Cl 1578, 1604; Pat 188, 473

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dreped v. drepe 'slain, killed' drepa ‘to strike a (violent) blow, knock down, deliver (a fatal) blow; kill, destroy, slaughter (etc.)’  CCC3c *drepan- Far droypa, Icel drepa, Norw drøypa, Sw dröpa Gaw 725; Cl 246, 599, 1306, etc. View
droupyng n. drooping ‘torpor, troubled sleep’ drúpa ‘to droop, hang one’s head’ BBB2ac *ðrūp-  Far drýpa, Icel drúpa, Norw drupa Gaw 1748, 1750 View
drowne v. drowned ‘immersed, drowned’ drukna 'to drown' C2 *drunkanō(j)an- or ?*drūn- Far drukna, Icel drukna, Norw drukna, runic Dan truknaþu (past 3 pl.), Dan drukne, Sw drunkna Pe 656; Cl 372, 989; Pat 245; WA 2590, 3032, 3072 View
drowpys v. droops ‘sinks’ drúpa 'droop' CCC5 *đrūpōjan- Icel drúpa, Norw drupa WA 734* View
dryftes n. drift

'(snow)drifts'

drift ‘driven snow; snowdrift; pollen; dust, ashes’

CC1a

*driƀ-

Far drift, Icel drift, Norw drift, Dan drift

Gaw 2005

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dryʒe adj., n. dree, dreigh ‘great; incessant, heavy; unmoved, enduring’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Gaw 335, 724, 1031, etc., Pe 823; Cl 342, 385; WA 2091, 4441, 4804 View
dumpe v.

'plunge'

dumpa 'hit heavily, thump'

B2c

?*demp-

Far dump, Icel dumpa, Norw dumpa, Dan dumpe

Pat 362; WA 4487

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Word
Etymology