Showing 151 to 200 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
vgly adj. ugly

‘gruesome, threatening, evil-looking’

uggligr ‘to be feared’

B1c

Icel uggð, Norw ugg, Sw dial ugg, ygg

Gaw 441, 2079, 2190; Cl 892

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croked adj. crooked

'crooked, astray, dishonest'

krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’ 

BB1b

?*krōk-

Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Gaw 653; Cl 181, 1697

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wel-haled adj., v. well-haled ‘pulled up properly, drawn tight’ hala ‘to haul, pull’  BBB2a *xalōjan- Far hála, Icel hala, Norw hala, Dan hale Gaw 157 View
knorned adj., v. knurned 'rough, craggy' BBB2a Sw dial knurr, knurra;  knorla  Gaw 2166 View
rad adj. rad

'afraid'

hræddr ‘afraid, frightened, timid’

B1c

*xrēðjan- or *xrēþjan-

Far ræða, Icel hræða, Norw ræda, Dan dial ræde, OSw ræþe, Sw dial rädda

Gaw 251; Cl 1543; WA 1040, 2510

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stor adj. stour, stoor ‘mighty; strong, severe; large’ stórr ‘big, great’ BB2abc *stōra- Far stórur, Icel stór, Norw stor, Dan stor, Sw stor Gaw 1291, 1923; WA 745*, 1367, 1534 etc. View
wale adj. wale

‘choice, excellent, fair, noble’

val 'choice', vǫl  'choice'

B2ac

*wal-

Far val, Icel val, Norw val, ODan val, Dan valg, Sw val; Far velja, Icel velja, Norw velja, Dan vælge, Sw välja

Gaw 1010, 1403, 1712, etc.; Cl 1716, 1734

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sene adj., v. ‘visible, plain, clear; seen’ sýnn ‘visible, clear, evident; sightly’ CCC1a *segwni- or *sexwan- Icel sýnn, sýn, Norw syn, OSw syn Gaw 148, 197, 239, etc.; Pe 164, 194, 787, etc.; Cl 1169; Erk 100; WA 62, 1551 View
wylle adj., n. will (1) 'going astray, erring, going wrong'; (2) 'wilfulness' (1a) villr (adj.) ‘wild; bewildered, erring, astray’; (1b) villa (n.) 'going astray; error, falsehood' DD2 (1) *welþjaz; (2)*weljōn, *welan (1a) Far villur, Icel villur, Norw vill, ODan willær, wild(ær), Dan vild, OSw vildær, Sw vill, vild; (1b) Far villa, Icel villa, Norw villa, Sw villa Cl 76 View
haʒer adj. ‘skilful, well-wrought, fit, ready’ hagr ‘handy, skilful’  A2*c *xag-az Far hagur, Icel hagur, Norw hag, ODan hag, OSw hagher Gaw 352, 1738 View
muckel adj., n. mickle 'large, great; size' mikill, mykill 'great, large'; cp. miklu, mikit (etc.) (n.) 'much' CC2c *mekila Far mikil, mekil, Icel mikill, ODan megel, møgel, OSw mykil Gaw 142, Cl 52, 366, 514 etc.; Pat 268, 324; Erk 27, 286; WA 69, 130, 215 etc. View
bene adj. bein 'pleasing, fair' beinn 'straight, direct; hospitable, helpful, accommodating' DD1c (1)*baina-; (3) *bōni- Far beinur, Icel beinn, Norw bein Gaw 2475; Pe 110; Pat 418 View
big adj. big 'strong; sharp; big, great, mighty' byggva (byggja) 'to settle, inhabit' D1c (1)*big-; (2) *bug- or *bugg- (1) Far byggja, Icel byggja, Norw byggja, Dan bygge, Sw bygga; (2) Norw dial bugge, bugga Gaw 554, 2101; Pe 102, 374; Cl 43, 229, 1183 etc.; Pat 302; WA 915, 1808, 1295 etc. View
ferly adj. ferly ‘extraordinary, unusual, marvelous; exceedingly, thoroughly’  ferligr ‘monstrous’ DD1 (1) *fēr-; (2) *fera; (3) *fer(e)r- Gaw 716; Pe 1084 View
sweʒe adj., v. sway 'to speed, sink, stoop, collapse; fall, rush, swing' (2) sveigja ‘to bow, bend’ (trans. and intrans.), sveigja-sk ‘to be swayed, sway, swerve’ DD1c (1) *swōgjan-; (2) *swaigjan-; (3) *swegan- (2) Far sveiggja, Icel sveigja, Norw sveigja, Dan sveje, Sw dial sväig', sveia  Gaw 1429, 1796; Cl 87, 420, 788, etc.; Pat 72, 151, 236; WA 2057, 3970 View
sere adj. sere ‘separate, individual; various, several’ sér 3 pers. sg. reflex. pron. (dat.) A2c *sē-z Far sær, Icel sér, Norw sêr, Dan sær, I sær, runic Sw saʀ, Sw i sär Gaw 124, 761, 822, etc.; Cl 336, 358, 507, etc.; Pat 12; WA 86, 570, 1083 View
welcum adj. welcome 'welcome' velkominn ‘welcome (esp. in greeting)’ CCC4a *welō(n), *walō(n) + *kweman-  Icel velkominn, Norw velkomen, velkommen, Dan velkommen, OSw vælkomin, Sw välkommen Gaw 252, 814, 835, etc.; Pe 399; Cl 813 View
skylly adj., n. 'wise, skilful; excuse, pretext' Cl 62, 529 View
loʒe adj. low 'low, low lying, below, short; in lowly condition, humble' lágr ‘low’  A1* *lēga- Far lágur, Icel lágur, Norw låg, Dan lav, Sw låg Gaw 302, 1040, 1170 etc., Pe 547, 1001; Cl 28, 798, 1761; Erk 147, 334; WA 199, 495 etc. View
boþe adj., adv., pron. both 'both' báðir 'both' C4a *bai- + *þai-z (etc.) Far báðir, Icel báðir, Norw både, beggje, Dan både, beggje, Sw både, begga Gaw 18, 111, 129, etc.; Pe 90, 329, 373 etc.; Cl 11, 20, 57 etc.; Pat 36, 134, 136 etc.; Erk 194; WA 88, 177, 492 etc. View
wylle adj. will ‘wandering, perplexing; at a loss’ villr ‘wild; bewildered, erring, astray’ A1*c *welþja- Far villur, Icel villur, Norw vill, ODan willær, wild(ær), Dan vild, OSw vildær, Sw vill, vild Gaw 2084; WA 1272; Pat 473 View
ryue adj., adv. rife ‘abundantly, much’ (1) rífr ‘munificent, abundant’ D1 (1) *rīf- or *reiba-; (2) *xrīƀ- (1) Far ríviligur, Icel rífur, Norw rîv, Sw dial riv Gaw 2046; Pe 770, 844; WA 1352, 1663 View
spenne-fote adv. spen-foot

(1) (a) ?‘with feet apart’;  (b) ‘with feet together’;  (2) ‘striking out with the feet’;  (3) ‘as if taking a spring with a kick’;  (4) ‘quickly’

(1) spenna (v.) ‘to span, clasp’; (3) spenna (v.) ‘(to jump) as if taking a spring with a kick’ (cp. sperna (v.) ‘to spurn, kick with the feet’); (4) spenna ‘to spend, enjoy’

D2

(1) *span(n)-; (2) *spennan-; (4) *spendan-

(1) Far spenna, Icel spenna, Norw spenna, Dan spænde, Sw spänna; (3) Far spenna, Norw spenna, Dan spænde, Sw dial spänna; (4) Icel spenna

Gaw 2316

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hemely adv.

‘suitably, neatly’

heimolliga, heimulliga (later heimugliga) ‘privately, intimately; duly, with full title to possession’

CCC1a

*xaimaz

cp. Icel heimileg(u)r, Norw heimeleg, Dan hemmelig, Sw heimlig

Gaw 1852

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helde adv.

‘readily, likely’

heldr ‘more, rather; very; but, on the contrary; soonest, especially’

C1c

*xalð-iz-

Far heldur, Icel heldri, heldur, Norw helder, Dan heller(e), Sw heller, hellre

Pe 1193

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wrang adv. wrong

‘unjustly, wrongly’

vrangr, rangr (adj.) ‘awry, not straight; wrong, unjust, unrighteous’

C1

*wrang-

Far rangur, Icel rangr, Norw vrang, rang, Dan vrang, Sw vrång

Pe 488, 614; Cl 891

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grouelyng adv. grovelling

‘prostrate’

grúfa (n.) ‘position of being face-downwards’, in phrase á grúfu 'bent over, in a grovelling position’

B2

*grūƀ-

Far á grúgva, Norw gruv

Pe 1120

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fordolked adv.

(1) 'grievously wounded'; (2) 'made dull, stupified'; (3) 'despoiled, robbed'

(3) cp. dokk, dokka 'windlass'

DD2

(1) *dulʒ-; (2) *dul-; (3) *dukk-

(3) Icel dokkur, Norw dokke; Icel dokk, Norw dokka, Sw docka

Pe 11

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aglyʒte adv. 'slipped away' gljá ‘to glitter’ DD1c ?*glīw- Far glíggja, Icel gljá, Norw glå, gljå, Sw dial glia Pe 245 View
adreʒ adv. adreigh ‘away, back’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Cl 71 View
hagherlych adv. 'fittingly, properly' hagr (adj.) ‘handy, skilful’; cp. hagliga (adv.) 'skilfully, handily’ A2*c *xag-az Far hagur, Icel hagur, Norw hag, ODan hag, OSw hagher Cl 18, 1707 View
aloʒ adv. alow

'quietly'

lágr ‘low’

A1*

*lēga-

Far lágur, Icel lágur, Norw låg, Dan lav, Sw låg

Cl 670

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bilooghe adv. below

'below'

lágr (adj.) ‘low’

A1*

*lēga-

Far lágur, Icel lágur, Norw låg, Dan lav, Sw låg

Cl 116

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mekned adv. meeken

'to soften'

mjúkr ‘soft, agile; meek, mild’

B1

*meuk-

Far mjúkr, Icel mjúkr, Norw mjuk, Dan myg, Sw mjuk; cp. Norw mjukne, OSw miukna, Sw mjukna

Cl 1328

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naytly adv.

'well, properly'

neytr 'good, fit for use'

A1ac

*naut(j)a-

Icel neytur, Norw fånøytt

Cl 480

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*serly adv.

'severally, individually'

sér 3 pers. sg. reflex. pron. (dat.), adv.; serliga (adv.) 'apart, particularly'

A2c

*sē-z

Far sær, Icel sér, Norw sêr, Dan sær, i sær, runic Sw saʀ, Sw i sär

Cl 117; Pat 193

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vnþryvandely adv.

'poorly, improperly, unsuitably'

þrífa-sk ‘to thrive’

B1c

*þrīfan-

Far tríva, trívast, Icel þrífa, þrívast, Norw triva, Dan trives, MSw thrive

Cl 135

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waykned adv.

'was enfeebled'

veikr (veykr) (adj.) ‘weak’ 

A1*c

*weik(w)a-

Far veikur, Icel veikur, Norw veik, Dan veg, Sw vek; Norw dial veikna, OSw vikna, MSw vekna, Sw vekna

Cl 1422

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allyt adv. (1) 'back, with delay'; (2) '(even) a little' (1) hlíta ‘to rely on, trust, abide by’; (2) lítt (adv.) ‘little’ D2 (1) *hlītan-; (2) lūti- or lītilaz (1) Far líta, Icel hlíta, Norw lita, Dan lide, OSw lita, Sw lita; (2) Far lítt, Icel lítt, Dan lidt Cl 599 View
breyþed adv. 'rushed' bregða 'to move swiftly' C2c *bregðan- Far bregða, brigða, Icel bregða, Norw bregda, ODan bre(i)de, OSw breghþa Cl 1421 View
spakly adv.

'readily, willingly, quickly'

spakr (adj.) 'gentle, wise', cp. spakliga (adv.) 'peaceably, wisely'

B1


 

Far spakur, Icel spakur, Norw spak, ODan spak, Dan spag, OSw skaper, Sw spak; cp. MSw spaklika, Sw spakliga

Cl 755; Pat 338; Erk 335; WA 786, 2975

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spak adv.

'smartly'

spakr (adj.) 'gentle, wise'

B1

Far spakur, Icel spakur, Norw spak, ODan spak, Dan spag, OSw skaper, Sw spak

Pat 104

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are adv. ere 'before' ár 'early' CC1 *air- Far ári, Icel ár, Norw år Gaw 239, 1632, 1891; Cl 438, 1128; Erk 36; WA 246, 447, 1140 View
deruely adv.

'boldy'

djarfr (adj.) ‘courageous, aggressive, dauntless; heedless, impudent', djarfliga (adv.) 'bravely, boldly, daringly, dauntlessly; rashly, precipitously, impudently; without reservation; roundly, immoderately' 

C1ac

*derƀ- 

Far djarvur, Icel djarfur, Norw djerv, Dan djerv, Sw djärv

Gaw 2334; Cl 632, 1641; Pat 110

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helder adv. helder 'rather, more' heldr ‘more, rather; very; but, on the contrary; soonest, especially’ C1c *xalð-iz- Far heldur, Icel heldri, heldur, Norw helder, Dan heller(e), Sw heller, hellre Gaw 376, 430; WA 1016, 1140, 1633* etc. View
heterly adv.

‘fiercely, cruelly, vigorously, suddenly, quickly’

hatr 'hatred'; hatrliga ‘hatefully’

CCC1ac

*xat-

Far hatur, Icel hatur, Norw hat, Dan had, OSw hat

Gaw 1152, 1446, 1462, etc.; Pe 403; Cl 380, 1222; Pat 381, 477, 481; WA 264, 669, 678 etc. 

View
holsumly adv. wholesomely 'healthfully' heilsamr ‘salutary’; cp. heilsamliga 'uprightly' CCC1a *xaila- Far heilur, Icel heill, Norw heil, Dan hel, Sw hel Gaw 1731 View
alofte adv., prep. aloft

‘up, above, at the top, on; on horseback’

loft ‘air, atmosphere, sky, heaven; space; loft, upper room; balcony’

C1

*luft-a-n

Far loft, luft, Icel loft, lopt, Norw loft, luft, Dan loft, luft, Sw loft, luft

Gaw 194, 435, 572 etc.; Cl 1183; Pat 447; Erk 49; WA 858

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semly adv. seemly

‘becomingly, excellently; pleasantly, sweetly’

sœmr ‘becoming, fit’; cp. sœmiliga ‘honourably, becomingly’ 

C1a

*sōmi-

Icel sæmur, Norw sømre, Sw dial sym

Gaw 865, 882, 888, etc.; Cl 1442; Erk 35; WA 198, 281, 424

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semlyly adv. seemlily

'becomingly'

sœmr ‘becoming, fit’; cp. sœmiliga ‘honourably, becomingly’ 

C1ac

*sōmi-

Icel sæmur, Norw sømre, Sw dial sym

Gaw 622

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Etymology