Showing 151 to 200 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
happen adj. cp. heppen 'fortunate, blessed' heppinn ‘lucky’ CC1c *xap(p)-  Far heppin, Icel heppinn, Norw heppen, Sw dial vanhäppen Gaw 56; Pat 13, 15, 17, etc. View
vnhappen adj. cp. unheppen


heppinn ‘lucky’; cp. óheppinn 'unlucky'



Far heppin, Icel heppinn, Norw heppen, Sw dial vanhäppen

Cl 573; Erk 198

craue v. crave ‘to claim, ask for, crave, beg’ krefja ‘to crave, demand, call on one’ BB1 *kraƀ- (prob.*kraƀo(j)an-) Far krevja, Icel krefja, Norw krevja, Dan kræve, Sw kräva Gaw 277, 283, 812, etc.; Cl 810 View
crokeʒ n. crook


krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’



Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Pe 40

croked adj. crooked

'crooked, astray, dishonest'

krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’ 



Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Gaw 653; Cl 181, 1697

cros n. cross


kross 'cross'


Far krossur, Icel, Norw kross, Dan kors, Sw kors

Gaw 762; Erk 2

croun n. crown 'crown; crown of the head; tonsure' krúna ‘crown’ FCCC2a Far krúna, Icel krúna, Norw krune, kruna, Dan krone, Sw krona Gaw 364, 419, 616, etc.; Pe 427, 1100; Cl 1275; Erk 55, 222; WA 121, 231, 817 etc. View
dale n. dale ‘(bottom of) valley’ dalr ‘valley; hollow, depression (in the landscape)’ CC5ab *dala- Far dalur, Icel dalur, Norw dal, Dan dal, Sw dal Gaw 1151, 2005, 2162; Pe 121; Cl 384 View
daylyeden v. dally

(1) ‘trifle, make (courtly) love; converse, contend, dispute’; (2) ‘bandy pleasantries’

(2) deila ‘to divide, apportion’ (etc.); ‘to contend, quarrel’


(2) *dail-

(2) Far deila, Icel deila, Norw deila, Sw dela

Gaw 1114; Pe 313

dam n. dam

‘body of water (in a conduit or artificial pool), sea, flood’

dammr ‘weir, weir-pool, pond’



Far dammur, Icel dammur, Norw damm, Dan dam, Sw damm

Pe 324; Cl 416; Pat 312; WA 3928

donkande v. dank ‘moistening’ dǫkk ‘?hollow, pit, ?swampy tract, fen’ BB1c *ðank-  Icel dokk, dökk, Norw dokk, Sw dial dank, dakk; dänke  Gaw 519 View
dare v. dare 'to cower, shrink' DD1 Far darra, Norw darra, Sw darra Gaw 315, 2258; Pe 609, 839 View
dasches adj., v. dash



Dan daske, Sw daska

Pat 312; WA 3882

dased adj., v. dazed

‘to be bewildered, dazed; to be numb’

*dasa, cp. dasaðr ‘exhausted, worn out’, dasast 'to become weary'



Icel dasa, Norw dasa, Dan dase, Sw dasa

Pe 1085; Cl 1538; Pat 383; WA 3044, 3997

derþe n. dearth


dýrð ‘glory, splendour’



Far dýrd, Icel dýrð, Sw dyrd

Pe 99

deuely adj. deavely

(1) ‘desolating, dreary’; (2) (*deruely) sudden

(1) daufligr ‘boring, dreary, eerie, sad’; (2) djarfliga (adv.) ‘bravely, boldy; rashly, precipitously’


(1) dauƀ-; (2) *derƀ-

Pe 51

deʒe v. die 'to die' deyja ‘to die’ C1a *daw-jan-  Far doggja, Icel deyja, Norw døya, Dan , Sw Gaw 996, 1163, 2460; Pe 306, 642, 705, etc.; Cl 400, 1329; Pat 488; Erk 246; WA 692, 990, 1033 etc. View
dike n. dike, dyke 'fosse, ditch' díki 'dike, ditch' CCC2 *dīk- Far díki, Icel díki, Norw dike, dik, Dan dige, Sw dike WA 700, 712, 2986 etc. View
dungen v. ding


dengja ‘to hammer (metal), forge; urge/press, ask persistently’


*dang(w)jan- or *dengwan-

Far deingja, Icel dengja, Norw dengja, Dan dænge, OSw dængia, Sw dial däng(j)a

Gaw 2105; Cl 1266

dok n. dock ‘tail’ or perhaps ‘trimmed hair (of tail, etc.)’  cp. dokk, dokka 'windlass' B2 *ðukk- Icel dokkur, Norw dokke; Icel dokk, Norw dokka, Sw docka Gaw 193 View
dowue n. dove


dúfa 'dove'



Far dúgva, dúva, Icel dúfa, Norw duva, duve, Dan due, Sw duva

Cl 469, 481, 485

draʒt n. draught

'drawbridge; character (in writing)'

dráttr ‘pulling, hauling, driving force; catching (fish) (etc.)’



Far dráttur, Icel dráttur, Norw drått, Dan dræt, Sw dial drätt

Gaw 817; Cl 1557

draueled v. dravel

(1)  ‘muttered (in sleep)’; (2) ‘drawled’

(1a) drafl (n.) ‘nonsense, foolish talk/conduct’, cp. drafa ‘to mumble, say (something) indistinctly’,


(1) *draƀ-; (1b) *draƀil- or *draƀulō(j)an-

(1a) Icel drafl, Dan dravel, Sw dravel; Icel drafla, Norw dravla 

Gaw 1750

dreme n. dream 'dreaming; dream, vision' draumr ‘dream, vision’ C3ac *draumaz (< root of *dreug- or *dreusan- ?) Far dreymur, Icel draumur, Norw draum, Dan drøm, Sw dröm Gaw 1750; Pe 790, 1170; Cl 1578, 1604; Pat 188, 473; WA 474 View
dryʒe adj., n. dree, dreigh ‘great; incessant, heavy; unmoved, enduring’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Gaw 335, 724, 1031, etc., Pe 823; Cl 342, 385; WA 2091, 4441, 4804 View
dreʒ adv. dree, dreigh


drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)'



Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg

Gaw 2263

dreʒly adv. dreely, dreighly ‘unceasingly, strongly, utterly, gravely’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Gaw 1026; Pe 125, 223; Cl 74, 344, 476; Pat 235 View
dreped v. drepe 'slain, killed' drepa ‘to strike a (violent) blow, knock down, deliver (a fatal) blow; kill, destroy, slaughter (etc.)’  CCC3c *drepan- Far droypa, Icel drepa, Norw drøypa, Sw dröpa Gaw 725; Cl 246, 599, 1306, etc. View
dryftes n. drift


drift ‘driven snow; snowdrift; pollen; dust, ashes’



Far drift, Icel drift, Norw drift, Dan drift

Gaw 2005

droupyng n. drooping ‘torpor, troubled sleep’ drúpa ‘to droop, hang one’s head’ BBB2ac *ðrūp-  Far drýpa, Icel drúpa, Norw drupa Gaw 1748, 1750 View
drowpys v. droops ‘sinks’ drúpa 'droop' CCC5 *đrūpōjan- Icel drúpa, Norw drupa WA 734* View
drowne v. drowned ‘immersed, drowned’ drukna 'to drown' C2 *drunkanō(j)an- or ?*drūn- Far drukna, Icel drukna, Norw drukna, runic Dan truknaþu (past 3 pl.), Dan drukne, Sw drunkna Pe 656; Cl 372, 989; Pat 245; WA 2590, 3032, 3072 View
dylle adj. dull


dul, dulr (n.) ‘delusion, concealment, disguise’; cp. dylja (v.) ‘to keep in ignorance, conceal’, údulðr ‘not unaware, knowing’



Far duli, dulur, Icel dul, Norw dul, OSw dul

Pe 680

dowelle v. dwell 'to remain; dwell; exist' dvelja ‘to keep/hold back, detain, stall, impede; delay, defer; tarry, hesitate; stay, reside, dwell (etc.)' CC3 *ðwaljan- Far dvølja, Icel dvelja, Norw dvelja, Dan dvæle, OSw dvälia Gaw 566, 1075, 1082; Cl 158, 376, 1196, etc.; Pa 69, 422; Erk 10; WA 830, 912, 1045, etc. View
arly adv. early


ár 'early', cp. árliga ‘annually’



Far ári, Icel ár, Norw år

WA 350, 351

egg n. egg 'egg' egg ‘egg’ A1* *ajja- Far egg, Icel egg, Norw egg, Dan eg, Sw ägg WA  507, 509, 893 View
eggyng n. egging 'urging' OIcel eggja 'sharpen; egg on, goad, incite' C2 *agjōjan- Far eggja, Icel eggja, Norw eggja, Dan ægge, Sw ägge Cl 241, WA 2409 View
enker(-grene) n. enker ‘bright (green)’   einkar ‘especially/most/very, exceptionally’ D1c (1) *ain-  Far onka-, Norw einka, OSw enka, Sw enkom  Gaw 150, 2477 View
areþede n. ere

'people of old times' (always in phrase in ~)

ár (adv) 'early'



Far ári, Icel ár, Norw år

Pe 711

are adv. ere 'before' ár 'early' CC1 *air- Far ári, Icel ár, Norw år Gaw 239, 1632, 1891; Cl 438, 1128; Erk 36; WA 246, 447, 1140 View
ernde n. errand ‘business, mission, errand’ ørendi, erendi, eyrendi ‘errand, message, business, mission; message, speech; strophe’ CCC5ac *ērundja- or *arundja- Far ørindi, Icel erindi, erendi, Norw ærend, Dan ærende, Sw ärende Gaw 257, 559, 809, etc.; Pat 52, 72, 202 View
attle v. ettle

'to intend; prepare; address'

ætla 'to think,  intend' 



Far, Icel ætla, Norw etla, atla, Sw dial ättla, ässla

Gaw 27, 2263; Cl 207; WA 15, 1157, 1819, etc.

atlyng n. ettling


ætla 'to think, intend'



Far ætla, Icel ætla, Norw etla, atla, Sw dial ättla, ässla

Cl 688

euen v. even

‘compare, vie’

jafnask ‘to compare oneself, to be equal to, call oneself a match for another’



Pe 1073

faltered v. falter


 faltra-sk ‘to be cumbered’


(1) *falþ-; (2) *faltra-

Icel faltrast

Gaw 430

fonge v. fang ‘to take, receive, get; welcome, entertain; derive’ fanga ‘to fetch, capture’ CCC1ac *fanxan- Far fanga, Icel fanga, Norw fanga, Dan fange, OSw fænga Gaw 391, 646, 816, etc.; Pe 439, 479, 884; Cl 457, 540 View
farand adj. farrand, farrant

'fitting, seemly, splendid'

fara 'to move, go etc., to suit, befit'


(1) *faran-

Far fara, Icel fara, Norw fara, Dan fare, Sw fara

Gaw 101; Pe 865; Cl 607, 1758

fest v. fast

'made fast, agreed upon'

festa ‘to fasten; hang up; fix, settle, stipulate’



Far festa, Icel festa, Norw festa, Dan fæste, Sw fästa

Gaw 2347

festnen v. fasten

'make firm, bind'

cp. fastna ‘to pledge’



Gaw 1783; Cl 156, 327, 1255; Pat 273

fawne v. fawn

'to fondle, stroke'

fagna ‘to be fain, rejoice; welcome, receive with good cheer’



Far fagna, Icel fagna, Norw fagna, ODan fagne, Sw fägne

Gaw 1919