Showing 151 to 200 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
cauels n. 'splinters' kafli 'cut off piece', kefli 'small piece of wood, club, round stick' B2c ?*kaƀl- Far kalvur, Icel kafli, Norw kavl, kavle, Dan kavl, kavle, Sw kavle, Sw dial kavel; Icel kefli, Norw kjevle, Sw dial kävle WA 799 View
cayser n. 'emperor, ruler' keisari 'emperor' C2 *kaisar- Far keisari, Icel keisari, Norw keisar, Dan kejser, Sw kejsare Cl 1322, 1374, 1593; Erk 199 View
chaffer n. chaffer

‘trade, merchandise’

kaupfǫr ‘trading journey’ 


*kaupaz + *farō

Gaw 1647, 1939

(child)-gered adj. (1) gear; (2) gere; (3) cheer

'boyish, merry'

(1) gervi, gørvi ‘gear, apparel’; (2)  gerr ‘greedy’


(1) *garwj-; (2) *ger-

(1) Icel gervi; (2) Icel gerr, Norw gjer 

Gaw 86 

chymbled v. chymble

'bound, wrapped up'

kimbla ‘to truss up’



Icel kimbla; cp. Far kimbil, kimbul, Icel kimbill, Norw kimbel, kimmel

Gaw 958

claggid adj., v. ?'clogged, crammed' cp. kleggi 'horsefly'  CC2c ?*klaij- ODan klæg, Dan klæg  WA 5429 View
clambere v. clamber

(1) ‘to cluster’; (2) ‘to clamber’

(1) klambra ‘to clamp or pinch together’



(1) Far klombra, Icel klambra, Norw klemb(r)a 

Gaw 801, 1722

clyff n. cliff ‘cliff, (high) rock’  klif 'cliff' CCC5a *klib- Far kliv, Icel klif, Sw dial kliv Gaw 713, 1166, 1431, etc.; Cl 405, 460, 965 View
clynt n. clint

'rocky cliff'

klettr 'cliff (in the landscape), cliff-face, crag, bluff, escarpment'



Far klettur, Icel klettur, Norw klett, Dan klint, OSw klinter, Sw klint, Sw dial klätt

WA 4830

clyntirand adj. 'rocky' klettr (n.) 'cliff (in the landscape), cliff-face, crag, bluff, escarpment' B2ab *klentaz WA 4863 View
clypper n.


klippa (v.) 'to clip'



Far klippa, Norw klippa, Dan klippe, Sw klippa, Sw dial klöppa, Shetl klipp

Pe 802

cnokez v. knock 'knock, deal a blow' knoka ‘to knock, thump’ CCC2a *knok- or *knuk- Icel knoka, Norw knoka, ODan knoge, Dan knuge, Sw dial knoka, knåka Gaw 414; Pe 727; Cl 1348; WA 639, 1599 View
come n.

'coming, arrival'

kváma ‘coming, arrival, visit’


*kweman- or *kuman-

Norw dial kome, kōma, OSw kōma

Pe 1117; Cl 467, 1706

connyng n. 'understanding, arts' kunnandi 'knowledge' CCC3 *kunnan- Cl 1611, 1625 View
cost n. cost ‘nature, quality; terms; manners, ways, disposition; condition, plight’ kostr ‘condition, choice, opportunity (etc.)’ C1ac *kust-iz or *kust-uz Far kostur, Icel kostur, Norw kost, ODan kost, Dan kost, OSw koster Gaw 546, 750, 944, etc.; Cl 1024, 1478 View
costez v. coast

(1) ‘coasts, passes by the side of’; (2) ‘gives (full bright) quality to’; (3) ‘drives’

(2) kostr ‘condition, choice, opportunity (etc.)’; (3) kasta ‘to cast, throw’


(2) *kustiz or *kustuz; (3) *kastō(j)an-

(2) Far kostur, Icel kostur, Norw kost, ODan kost, OSw koster; (3) Far kasta, Icel kasta, Norw kasta, Dan kaste, Sw kasta

Gaw 1696

craue v. crave ‘to claim, ask for, crave, beg’ krefja ‘to crave, demand, call on one’ BB1 *kraƀ- (prob.*kraƀo(j)an-) Far krevja, Icel krefja, Norw krevja, Dan kræve, Sw kräva Gaw 277, 283, 812, etc.; Cl 810 View
croked adj. crooked

'crooked, astray, dishonest'

krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’ 



Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Gaw 653; Cl 181, 1697

crokeʒ n. crook


krókr ‘hook, anything crooked’



Far krókur, Icel krókur, Norw krôk, Dan krog, Sw krok

Pe 40

cros n. cross


kross 'cross'


Far krossur, Icel, Norw kross, Dan kors, Sw kors

Gaw 762; Erk 2

croun n. crown 'crown; crown of the head; tonsure' krúna ‘crown’ FCCC2a Far krúna, Icel krúna, Norw krune, kruna, Dan krone, Sw krona Gaw 364, 419, 616, etc.; Pe 427, 1100; Cl 1275; Erk 55, 222 View
dale n. dale ‘(bottom of) valley’ dalr ‘valley; hollow, depression (in the landscape)’ CC5ab *dala- Far dalur, Icel dalur, Norw dal, Dan dal, Sw dal Gaw 1151, 2005, 2162; Pe 121; Cl 384 View
dam n. dam

‘body of water (in a conduit or artificial pool), sea, flood’

dammr ‘weir, weir-pool, pond’



Far dammur, Icel dammur, Norw damm, Dan dam, Sw damm

Pe 324; Cl 416; Pat 312; WA 3928

dare v. dare 'to cower, shrink' DD1 Far darra, Norw darra, Sw darra Gaw 315, 2258; Pe 609, 839 View
dasches adj., v. dash



Dan daske, Sw daska

Pat 312; WA 3882

dased adj., v. dazed

‘to be bewildered, dazed; to be numb’

*dasa, cp. dasaðr ‘exhausted, worn out’, dasast 'to become weary'



Icel dasa, Norw dasa, Dan dase, Sw dasa

Pe 1085; Cl 1538; Pat 383; WA 3044, 3997

daylyeden v. dally

(1) ‘trifle, make (courtly) love; converse, contend, dispute’; (2) ‘bandy pleasantries’

(2) deila ‘to divide, apportion’ (etc.); ‘to contend, quarrel’


(2) *dail-

(2) Far deila, Icel deila, Norw deila, Sw dela

Gaw 1114; Pe 313

deʒe v. die 'to die' deyja ‘to die’ C1a *daw-jan-  Far doggja, Icel deyja, Norw døya, Dan , Sw Gaw 996, 1163, 2460; Pe 306, 642, 705, etc.; Cl 400, 1329; Pat 488; Erk 246; WA 692, 990, 1033 etc. View
demerlayke n.

'magic arts'

leikr ‘game, play, sport’ 



Far leikur, Icel leikur, Norw leik, Dan leg, OSw leker, Sw lek

Cl 1561, 1578

derf adj.

‘bold, audacious, doughty, stout; great, astonishing; grievous, severe’

djarfr ‘courageous, aggressive, dauntless; heedless, impudent’ 



Far djarvur, Icel djarfur, Norw djerv, Dan djerv, Sw djärv

Gaw 558, 564, 1000, etc.; Cl 862; Pat 166; Erk 99; WA 1024, 1211, 1811, etc.

derþe n. dearth


dýrð ‘glory, splendour’



Far dýrd, Icel dýrð, Sw dyrd

Pe 99

deruely adv.


djarfr (adj.) ‘courageous, aggressive, dauntless; heedless, impudent', djarfliga (adv.) 'bravely, boldly, daringly, dauntlessly; rashly, precipitously, impudently; without reservation; roundly, immoderately' 



Far djarvur, Icel djarfur, Norw djerv, Dan djerv, Sw djärv

Gaw 2334; Cl 632, 1641; Pat 110

deuely adj. deavely

(1) ‘desolating, dreary’; (2) (*deruely) sudden

(1) daufligr ‘boring, dreary, eerie, sad’; (2) djarfliga (adv.) ‘bravely, boldy; rashly, precipitously’


(1) dauƀ-; (2) *derƀ-

Pe 51

dike n. dike, dyke 'fosse, ditch' díki 'dike, ditch' CCC2 *dīk- Far díki, Icel díki, Norw dike, dik, Dan dige, Sw dike WA 700, 712, 2986 etc. View
dok n. dock ‘tail’ or perhaps ‘trimmed hair (of tail, etc.)’  cp. dokk, dokka 'windlass' B2 *ðukk- Icel dokkur, Norw dokke; Icel dokk, Norw dokka, Sw docka Gaw 193 View
donkande v. dank ‘moistening’ dǫkk ‘?hollow, pit, ?swampy tract, fen’ BB1c *ðank-  Icel dokk, dökk, Norw dokk, Sw dial dank, dakk; dänke  Gaw 519 View
dowelle v. dwell 'to remain; dwell; exist' dvelja ‘to keep/hold back, detain, stall, impede; delay, defer; tarry, hesitate; stay, reside, dwell (etc.)' CC3 *ðwaljan- Far dvølja, Icel dvelja, Norw dvelja, Dan dvæle, OSw dvälia Gaw 566, 1075, 1082; Cl 158, 376, 1196, etc.; Pa 69, 422; Erk 10 View
dowue n. dove


dúfa 'dove'



Far dúgva, dúva, Icel dúfa, Norw duva, duve, Dan due, Sw duva

Cl 469, 481, 485

draʒt n. draught

'drawbridge; character (in writing)'

dráttr ‘pulling, hauling, driving force; catching (fish) (etc.)’



Far dráttur, Icel dráttur, Norw drått, Dan dræt, Sw dial drätt

Gaw 817; Cl 1557

draueled v. dravel

(1)  ‘muttered (in sleep)’; (2) ‘drawled’

(1a) drafl (n.) ‘nonsense, foolish talk/conduct’, cp. drafa ‘to mumble, say (something) indistinctly’,


(1) *draƀ-; (1b) *draƀil- or *draƀulō(j)an-

(1a) Icel drafl, Dan dravel, Sw dravel; Icel drafla, Norw dravla 

Gaw 1750

dreʒ adv. dree, dreigh


drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)'



Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg

Gaw 2263

dreʒly adv. dreely, dreighly ‘unceasingly, strongly, utterly, gravely’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Gaw 1026; Pe 125, 223; Cl 74, 344, 476; Pat 235 View
dreme n. dream

'dreaming; dream, vision'

draumr ‘dream, vision’


*draumaz (< root of *dreug- or *dreusan- ?)

Far dreymur, Icel draumur, Norw draum, Dan drøm, Sw dröm

Gaw 1750; Pe 790, 1170; Cl 1578, 1604; Pat 188, 473

dreped v. drepe 'slain, killed' drepa ‘to strike a (violent) blow, knock down, deliver (a fatal) blow; kill, destroy, slaughter (etc.)’  CCC3c *drepan- Far droypa, Icel drepa, Norw drøypa, Sw dröpa Gaw 725; Cl 246, 599, 1306, etc. View
droupyng n. drooping ‘torpor, troubled sleep’ drúpa ‘to droop, hang one’s head’ BBB2ac *ðrūp-  Far drýpa, Icel drúpa, Norw drupa Gaw 1748, 1750 View
drowne v. drowned ‘immersed, drowned’ drukna 'to drown' C2 *drunkanō(j)an- or ?*drūn- Far drukna, Icel drukna, Norw drukna, runic Dan truknaþu (past 3 pl.), Dan drukne, Sw drunkna Pe 656; Cl 372, 989; Pat 245; WA 2590, 3032, 3072 View
drowpys v. droops ‘sinks’ drúpa 'droop' CCC5 *đrūpōjan- Icel drúpa, Norw drupa WA 734* View
dryftes n. drift


drift ‘driven snow; snowdrift; pollen; dust, ashes’



Far drift, Icel drift, Norw drift, Dan drift

Gaw 2005

dryʒe adj., n. dree, dreigh ‘great; incessant, heavy; unmoved, enduring’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Gaw 335, 724, 1031, etc., Pe 823; Cl 342, 385; WA 2091, 4441, 4804 View
dumpe v.


dumpa 'hit heavily, thump'



Far dump, Icel dumpa, Norw dumpa, Dan dumpe

Pat 362; WA 4487