Showing 1 to 50 of 914 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
ryue adj., adv. rife ‘abundantly, much’ (1) rífr ‘munificent, abundant’ D1 (1) *rīf- or *reiba-; (2) *xrīƀ- (1) Far ríviligur, Icel rífur, Norw rîv, Sw dial riv Gaw 2046; Pe 770, 844 View
runisch adj. runish ?‘rough, violent’ (1) hrjónn 'rough'; (3) hrynja ‘to fall to ruin, tumble down; (metaph.) to stream, float (of garments); to stream, pour down (of fluids)’ DD1c (1) ?*hrewwa-; (2) *rūnō; (3)  *xreun- (1) Icel hrjón, Norw rjone, rjøne; (3) Icel hrynja, Norw rynja, OSw rynja, Sw dial ryni Gaw 457, Cl 1545, Erk 52 View
staf-ful adj. staff-full

'cram-full'

(2) stappa (v.) 'to stamp, stamp down; dray in a mortar'

D1c

(1) *staƀ-az; (2) *stamp-

(2) Norw stappfull; cp. Far stappa, Icel stappa, Norw stappa, ODan stappe

Gaw 494; WA 1543, 4897

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wyly adj. wily

'wily'

(4) vél (n.) ‘wile, device, trick’ 

DD1

(1) *wīl-; (2) wīgel-; (4) ?*wihl

(4) Far væl, Icel vél, Norw vēl, MSw väl

Gaw 1728, 1905

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fere adj. (1) feer, fere; (2) fere

(1) ‘proud, bold’; (2) ‘hale, healthy’

(2) fœrr ‘able, capable, strong; fit for use, safe’

DD2

(2) *fōri-

(2) Far førur, Icel fær, Norw før, Dan før, Sw för

Gaw 103

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raged adj., v. ragged (1) ‘ragged, shaggy’; (2) ‘hoar-frosted’ (1a) raggaðr 'provided with tufts, shaggy', rǫgg 'tuft, shagginess, strip of fur' D2 (1a) *raww-; (1b) *rag-; (2) *hrag- (1a) Icel raggaður, Norw ragget, raggad, OSw raggotter; Icel rögg, Norw ragg, ODan, OSw rag, Sw ragg; (2) Icel hragla, Sw dial ragg, ragga, Dan ræg, Dan dial (Jutlandic) rag Gaw 745; WA 5133 View
scholes adj., n. (1) shoeless; (2) soles

(1) (adj.) ‘shoeless’;  (2) (n. pl.) ‘shoes with long pointed toes’; (3) (n. pl.) ‘thin plates (part of the horse’s armour)’; (4) (n. pl.) ‘protections under and inside the thighs’; (5) (n. pl.) ‘supports covering the sole of the foot’.

(1) skólauss 'shoeless'; (4) skál ‘bowl, hollow; scales’

DD2

(1) *skōhaz; (3) *skullōn; (4) *skēl-

(1) Far skógvur, Icel skór, Norw sko, Dan sko, Sw sko; (3) Sw skolla; (4) Far skál, Icel skál, Norw skål, Dan skål, Sw skål

Gaw 160

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vphalt adj., v. uphold

(1) ‘lifted up’;  (2) ‘raised, i.e. high’

(2) halla ‘to lean, turn, sway, swerve’ (or hala 'pull')

DD2

(1) *xaldan-; (2) *xalþōjan- or *xalōjan-

(2) Far halla, Icel halla; Far hála, Icel hala, Norw hala, Dan hale

Gaw 2079

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wylyde adj. wild

(1a) ‘wild, i.e. licentious, amorous’, (1b) ‘cruel’ (~ werke ‘cruel act’);  (2) ‘choice’ (~ werke ‘choice handiwork’);  (3a) ‘guileful’ (~ werke ‘intrigue’), (3b) ‘skilful’

(2) vildr (vilðr) ‘chosen, choice, good’; (3) ?vél ‘wile, device, trick’

DD2

(1) *welþja-; (2) *wel-; (3) (1) *wīl-, wīgel- or ?*wihl-

(2) Icel vildur, ODan vildh, MSw vilder, Sw dial viller; (3) ?Far væl, Icel vél, Norw vēl, MSw väl

Gaw 2367

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heme adj., n. (1) heme; (2) hem

(1) (adj.) ‘suitable, neat’; (2) (n.) ‘hem, skirt’

(1) cp. heimolliga, heimulliga (later heimugliga) ‘privately, intimately; duly, with full title to possession’

DD2

(1) *xaimaz; (2) *xam(m)-

(1) cp. Icel heimileg(u)r, Norw heimeleg, Dan hemmelig, Sw heimlig

Gaw 157

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louyly adj.

‘lawful’

lǫg (pl.) ‘law; law community, law-district’

C3d

*lag-

Far lóg, Icel lög, Norw log, Dan lov, Sw lag

Pe 565

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meke adj., n. meek

‘gentle, submissive, merciful, humble’

mjúkr ‘soft, agile; meek, mild’

B1

*meuk-

Far mjúkr, Icel mjúkr, Norw mjuk, Dan myg, Sw mjuk

Pe 404, 815, 832, etc.; Cl 771, 776, 815; Erk 250; WA 1747

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syluerin adj. silver

‘silver’

silfr (n.) 'silver'

CC2

*siluƀra-

Far silvur, Icel silfur, Norw sylv, ODan sølfver, Dan sølv, Sw silver

Gaw 124, 886; Cl 1406; WA 1565

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bygly adj. bigly

 ‘inhabitable, pleasant’

byggiligr 'habitable'

A1*bc

*ƀewwjan- or *ƀuwwjan-

Pe 963

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blayke adj.

‘yellow’

bleikr ‘pale, wan, ?bleached’

A1*

*ƀlaika-

Far bleikur, Icel bleikur, Norw bleik, Dan bleg, Sw blek, Shetl bleg

Pe 27

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blo adj. blae

‘dark, dusky, livid, grey’

blár ‘blue, blue-black, black’

A1*

*ƀlēwa-

Far bláur, Icel blár, Norw blå, Dan blå, Sw blå

Pe 83, 875; Cl 1017; Pat 134, 138, 221; Erk 290; WA 559

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dased adj., v. dazed

‘to be bewildered, dazed; to be numb’

*dasa, cp. dasaðr ‘exhausted, worn out’, dasast 'to become weary'

B1c

*das-

Icel dasa, Norw dasa, Dan dase, Sw dasa

Pe 1085; Cl 1538; Pat 383; WA 3044, 3997

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deuely adj. deavely

(1) ‘desolating, dreary’; (2) (*deruely) sudden

(1) daufligr ‘boring, dreary, eerie, sad’; (2) djarfliga (adv.) ‘bravely, boldy; rashly, precipitously’

D2

(1) dauƀ-; (2) *derƀ-

Pe 51

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dylle adj. dull

‘slow’

dul, dulr (n.) ‘delusion, concealment, disguise’; cp. dylja (v.) ‘to keep in ignorance, conceal’, údulðr ‘not unaware, knowing’

CCC5c

*dulj-

Far duli, dulur, Icel dul, Norw dul, OSw dul

Pe 680

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freles adj.

‘flawless’

frýjulauss 'blameless'

DD1c

Pe 431

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blunt adj. blunt

'stunned'
 

blunda (v.) 'to have one's eyes shut, doze'

DD1

Far blunda, Icel blunda, Norw blund(r)a, ODan blunde, Dan blunde, OSw blund(r)a

Pe 176

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bredful adj.

'brimfull'

C2

*brazd-

Norw dial bradd, ODan bræ(d)d, Dan bred, Sw brädd, Sw dial bradd; cp. Sw bräddfull

Pe 126; WA 1548, 4089, *3582 etc.

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homly adj. homely

'belonging to the household'

heimuligr 'private, belonging to the household'

CCC3a

*xaim-

Norw heimeleg, ODan hemmelig , hiemmelig, Dan hemmelig, OSw hemeliker , hemelikin , hemelig, Sw hemelig

Pe 1211

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saʒte adj., n. saught 'peace, at peace' sátt 'settlement, agreement, concord, peace', sætt 'reconciliation, agreement' B1c *saxtiz or *sanxtiz Far sætt, Icel sætt, Norw sætt Pe 52, 1201 View
slyʒt adj. slight

'slender'

sléttr 'plain, flat, even, smooth, level'

CC4c

*slixta-

Far slættur, Icel sléttur, Norw slett, ODan slæt, Dan slet, Sw slät, Sw dial sljett

Pe 190

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þrange adj., adv.

'oppressively, closely'

þrǫngr 'close, tight'

CC1c

*þrangwa-

Far. trongur, Icel. þröngur, Norw trong, Sw. trång, Dan. trang

Pe 17

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swangeande adj., v.

(1) 'swirling'; (2) 'pretty, pleasant' or 'slow'

(2) svangr 'slender, slim, thin'

DD2

(1) *swang-; (2) *swanga- or *swangra-

Far swangur, Icel swangur, Norw svang, Dan svang, Sw dial svång(er)

Pe 111

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nente adj. ninth 'ninth' niundi 'ninth' C2c *newunðō- or *newunþō- Norw niande, Dan niende, Sw nionde Pe 1012 View
ille adj. ill

‘vile, unbecoming, bad’

illr ‘ill, evil, bad’

B1c

?*elhila- 

Far illur, Icel illur, íllur, Norw ill, ODan ild, OSw ilder, Sw ill

Cl 272, 864; Pat 8, 203

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angre adj. angry

'caustic'

angr (n.) ‘sorrow, resentment, distress; repentance; tribulation, injury’

C1

*angez-

Far angur, Icel angur, Norw anger, Dan anger, Sw ånger

Cl 1035

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bolled adj. 'decorated in relief, embossed' bolgna (v.) ‘to swell, bulge’ CC1c *belgan- Icel bólginn, Norw bolgen, Dan bullen, OSw bulghin, bulin Cl 1464 View
broþely adj.

'wild, vile'

bráðr ‘immediate, sudden, harsh, fierce, rash'; cp. bráðligr 'immediate, sudden, violent'

A1c

*brēða- or *brēþa-

Far bráður, Icel bráður, Norw bråd, Dan brad, Sw bråd

Cl 848, 1030

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ferlyle adj.

'marvellous'

 ferligr ‘monstrous’

DD1c

(1) *fēr-; (2) *fera; (3) *fer(e)r-

Cl 1460

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froþande adj.

'frothing, festering'

froða (n., fem.) ‘froth’; frauð (n., neut.) ‘froth’ 

C1

*fruþ- or *frauþ-

Far froða, froði, Icel froðe, Norw frode, froda, Dan fråde, Sw dial fruddo, frådas; Far froyður, Icel frauð, Norw fraud, Sw dial fraud, fröda, frau

Cl 1721

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gaynly adj. gainly

'gracious'

gegn ‘straight, direct, ready, serviceable, kindly’

A1*bc

*gagni-

Icel gegn, Norw gjegn, ODan gjen, Dan dial gjen, Sw dial gen

Cl 728; Pat 83

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vnhappen adj. cp. unheppen

'accursed'

heppinn ‘lucky’; cp. óheppinn 'unlucky'

CC1c

*xap(p)-

Far heppin, Icel heppinn, Norw heppen, Sw dial vanhäppen

Cl 573; Erk 198

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soerly adj., adv. (1) 'filthy, base'; (2) 'severally, individually' (1) saurligr (adj.) 'unclean'; (2) sér 3 pers. sg. reflex. pron. (dat.), adv.; serliga (adv.) 'apart, particularly' D2 (1) *saur-; (2) *sē-z (1) Far seyrur, Icel saur, Norw saur, ODan sør, OSw sör-, Sw dial sör; (2) Far sær, Icel sér, Norw sêr, Dan sær, i sær, runic Sw saʀ, Sw i sär (1) Cl 117; (2) Cl 117; Pat 193 View
sour adj. (1) sour

'bitter, acid, vile'

(2) saurr (n.) 'mud, dirt', saurigr (adj.) 'filthy, dirty'

DD2

(1) *sūraz; (2) *saur-

(2) Far seyrur, Icel saur, Norw saur, ODan sør, OSw sör-, Sw dial sör

Cl 192, 1036

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scylful adj. skillful

'reasonable, righteous'

skil (pl.) ‘distinction, discernment (etc.)’

A1a

*skeli-

Far skil, Icel skil, Norw skil, Dan skel, Dan dial skil, OSw skil, Sw skäl

Cl 1148; Erk 278; WA 645

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trysty adj. 'true, faithful; true men' traustr ‘trusty, sure, firm, strong, safe’; traust ‘trust, protection, shelter’ BBB2 *trust- or *traust- Far treystur, Icel traustur, Norw traust, ODan trøst, MSw tröster; Far treyst, Icel traust, Norw traust, Dan trøst, Sw tröst Pe *460; Cl 763 View
*aucly adj., n.

'amiss, blemish'

ǫfugr 'backwards, turned the wrong way'

D1ac

*aƀug-

Far øvugurøvigur, Icel öfugur, Norw ovug, avug, Dan avet, Sw avig, avog

Cl 795

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autly adj., adv.

(1) 'courageously, manfully'; (2) 'lacking'

(2) auðr 'empty, void, desolate'

DD2

(1) *aiwin + *wextiz; (2) *auþaz

(2) Far eyður, Icel auður, Norw aud

Cl 795

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balteres adj., v. balter

'roll around; hobble'

B2c

*balt- ( ~ *bult-)

Norw dial bolta, baltra, Sw bulta, bultra, ODan bolte, Dan baltre, boltre

Cl 103; Pat 459

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banned adj., v. ban 'curse, (pp.) accursed' banna 'forbid, prevent, curse' CC3c *ƀannan- Far banna, Icel banna, Norw banna, Dan bande, Sw banna Cl 468, 885 View
bonde adj., n. 'bondmen, serfs' bóndi 'farmer, householder' C1 Far bóndi, Icel bóndi, Norw bonde, Dan bonde, Sw bonde Cl 88 View
bounet adj., v.

'prepare, place, present'

búinn ‘ready, prepared, finished, willing, favourably disposed (towards sth.)’

C3c

*bō(w)an or *bū(w)an-

Cl 1398; WA 218, 768, 1116 etc.

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campe adj.

'rough'

kampr 'beard, moustache'

C1

*kan(i)paz

Far kampur, Icel kampur, Norw kamp

Cl 1695

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littel adj., adv., n. little

'little'

lítill 'little'

CCC5c

*lūt- or *līt-

Far lítil, Icel lítill, Norw liten, Dan liden, Sw liten

Gaw 30, 1183, 1250 etc.; Pe 172, 301, 387, etc.; Cl 215, 233, 451 etc.; Pat 59, 94, 256 etc.; Erk 160, 165

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merk adj., n. murk

'dark, obscure, darkness'

myrkr 'dark, murky', cp. myrkr 'darkness'

CCC2ac

*merkwa-

Far myrkur, Icel myrkur, Norw myrk, Dan mørk, Sw mörk

Cl 894, 1617; Pat 291; WA 374, 2042, 3851 etc.

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odde adj., n. odd

'odd, extra; remarkably, illustrious; extra limb, penis'

odda-, oddi (n.) 'triangle, point (of land); (metaphorically) odd number'

A1*

*uzd-

Far oddi, Icel oddi, Norw odde, Dan dial odde, Sw udda

Cl 426, 505; WA 27, 94, 189 etc. 

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Etymology