Showing 1 to 50 of 915 lexemes.

Lexeme Part of Speech Modern English Form Sense ON Etymon Summary Category PGmc Ancestor Other Scandinavian reflexes Occurrences  
*barne n. (1) bairn

(1) ‘child’; (2) ‘warrior, knight, man’.

(1) barn 'child'

DD2

(1)*ƀarnan; (2) *ƀernuz

(1) Far barn, Icel barn, Norw barn, Dan barn, Sw barn

Gaw 2320

View
lagmon n. (1) belag; (2) lag; (3) law (1) (*bi-laggid men) ‘men spattered with dirt’; (2) ‘last or hindmost person’ (lad … bi lagmon = ‘led astray’); (3) ‘lawyer’ (lad … bi lagmon = ‘cunningly led astray (as if by a lawyer)’ (2a) cp. liggja (v.) 'to lie'; (3) lǫg ‘law; law community, law-district’, cp. laga-maðr, lǫg-maðr D2 (2a) *lag(g)-; (3) *lag- (2a) cp. Norw lagga, Sw dial lagga; (3) Far lóg, Icel lög, Norw log, Dan lov, Sw lag Gaw 1729 View
*bulk n. (1) block; (2) bulk

(1) ‘(headless) trunk (of the body)’; (3) (*blenk) 'gaze'

(2) bulki 'cargo that is secured (amidships)'; (3) blekkja ‘to deceive, betray, seduce’

D2

(3) *blankjan-

(2) Icel búlki, Norw bulk, bolk, Dan bulk, Sw bulk

Gaw 440

View
byled v. (1) boil; (2) bellow; (3) boil

(1) ‘boiled, bubbled’; (2) ‘resounded’; (3) ‘swelled, rose’

(2) bylja ‘to resound, echo’ 

DD2

(2) *buljan-; (3) *būljō-

(2) Far bylgja, Icel bylgja, Norw bylgja, Dan bølge, Sw bölja

Gaw 2082

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breth n. (1) breath

(1) breath; (2) 'fury'

(2) bræði 'anger, fury'

D2

*brēþa-

(2) Far bræði, Icel bræði, Norw bræde, OSw bræþe

Cl 916

View
*dyngez v. (1) ding; (2) damn

(1) (*dyngez) ‘smites’; (2) (dymnez) ‘condemns’

(1) dengja ‘to hammer (metal), forge; urge/press, ask persistently’ 

D2

(1) *dang(w)jan- or *dengwan-

(1) Far deingja, Icel dengja, Norw dengja, Dan dænge, OSw dængia, Sw dial däng(j)a

Gaw 2105

View
fere adj. (1) feer, fere; (2) fere

(1) ‘proud, bold’; (2) ‘hale, healthy’

(2) fœrr ‘able, capable, strong; fit for use, safe’

DD2

(2) *fōri-

(2) Far førur, Icel fær, Norw før, Dan før, Sw för

Gaw 103

View
forʒ n. (1) force; (2) furrow

(1) ‘waterfall’; (2) ‘channel, bed’

(1) fors ‘waterfall; cascade of water, giant wave; rushing water course, turbulent stream’ 

DD2

(1) *fursa-; (2) *furxō

(1) Far forsur, Icel fors, foss, Norw fors, foss, Dan fors, fos, Sw fors

Gaw 2173

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(child)-gered adj. (1) gear; (2) gere; (3) cheer

'boyish, merry'

(1) gervi, gørvi ‘gear, apparel’; (2)  gerr ‘greedy’

DD1

(1) *garwj-; (2) *ger-

(1) Icel gervi; (2) Icel gerr, Norw gjer 

Gaw 86 

View
glotte n. (1) gleet (1) 'corruption' (2) ?'open mouth' (2) cp. glotta (v.) 'to grin, smile scornfully and show teeth' DD2 (2) ?*glunt- (2) cp. Far glotta, Icel glotta, Norw glotta; Norw glott Erk 297 View
heme adj., n. (1) heme; (2) hem

(1) (adj.) ‘suitable, neat’; (2) (n.) ‘hem, skirt’

(1) cp. heimolliga, heimulliga (later heimugliga) ‘privately, intimately; duly, with full title to possession’

DD2

(1) *xaimaz; (2) *xam(m)-

(1) cp. Icel heimileg(u)r, Norw heimeleg, Dan hemmelig, Sw heimlig

Gaw 157

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*here n. (1) hire

'payment'

(2) eyrir 'ounce, money'

DD2

(1) *xūrja-; (2) *auri-

Far oyri, Icel eyrir, Norw ørre, Dan øre, Sw öre

Pe 616

View
horyed v. (1) hurried; (2) harried (1) 'urged, hurried'; (2) 'dragged, pulled' (1) cp. hurr 'hurley-burley, noise' DD2 (2) *xarjōjan- cp. Icel hurr (n.); Far hurra, Icel hurra, Norw hurra, Norw dial hurra, Dan hurre 'to whir', Sw hurra, Sw dial hurra Cl 883 View
laucyng n., v. (1) lance; (2) loosing

(1) (forlancyng) ‘throwing out’ (pres. ptcp.);  (2) (laucyng) ‘loosening’ (vbl. n.)

(2) lauss (adj.) ‘loose, free (etc.)’ 

D2

(2) *lausa-

(2) Far leysur, Icel laus, Norw laus, Dan løs, Sw lös

Gaw 1334

View
lenge adv., v. (1) lengh; (3) long; (4) leng (1) (lenge) and (3) (*longe) adv., ‘a long while, for a long time’; (2) (lenge) adv. compar. ‘longer’; (4) (lenge) v. infin. ‘to remain’ (1) lengi ‘long, for a long time’ DD2 (1) *lang-īn-; (3) *langa- ; (4) *lanʒjan- (1) Far leingi, Icel lengi, Norw lenge, Dan længe, Sw länge Gaw 88 View
messequyle n. (1) mass; (2) mess

(1) ‘time for mass’; (2) ‘dinner time’

(1) messa 'mass'

DD2

(1) Far messa, Icel messa, Norw messa, messe, Dan messe, Sw messa

Gaw 1097

View
*mukkyd v. (1) mucked; (2) made (1) 'shovelled'; (2) 'made' (1) moka 'to shovel' D2 (1) *mukōn-; (2) makōjan- (1) Icel moka, Norw moka, Dan muge, Sw måka, mocka, Sw dial muka Erk 43 View
neme v. (1) nim; (2) nemn

(1) (a) ‘took’ (pret. pl.), (b) ‘take’ (pres. pl.); (2) ‘name’ (pres. pl.; neme for, ‘name as’)

(1) nema ‘to take’

DD2

(1) *neman-; (2) *namnjan-

(1) Far nema, Icel nema, Norw nema, ODan nimmæ, Dan nemme, OSw næma, nima, Sw dial nimma

Gaw 1347

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quethe n. (1) queath

(1) ‘utterance’;  (2) ‘advance’

kviðr ‘saw, saying, speech, word’; kvæði ‘poem, song’

CCC1

(1) *kweþ-; (2) *kwak-

(1) Far kvæði, Icel kviður, kvæði, Norw kvæde, ODan kvæde, Sw kväde

Gaw 1150

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rape n. (1) rap; (3) ?rape

(1) 'blow'; (2) 'fall, ruin'; (3) 'treachery'

(2) hrapa ‘to fall, tumble down; rush headlong, hurry’ 

D2

(2) *xrapōjan-

(1) Norw rapp, Dan rap, Sw rapp; (2) Far rapa, Icel hrapa, Norw rapa, OSw rapa; cp. Icel hrap, Norw rap

Cl 233

View
sete n., v. (1) seat; (2) set, sit (1) 'seat, throne, place (at table)'; (2) 'to sit'; (3) 'to be seated' (1) and (3) sæti (n.) ‘seat’ D2 (1) *sētjan-; (2) *satjan- or *setjan-; (3) *sētjan- (1) and (3) Far sæti, Icel sæti, Norw sæte, ODan sæte, Dan sæde, OSw sǣte Sw säte Cl 1395 View
schifted v. (1) shift; (2) shaft

(1) (*schifted) ‘shifted, declined’; (2) (MS schafted) (a) ‘beamed, shone forth’, (b) ‘set’

(1) skifta, skipta ''to order, arrange'

DD2

(1) *skiptian- or *skipatjan-; (2) *skaft-

(1) Far skifta, Icel skipta, skifta, Norw skifta, ODan skiftæ, Dan skifte, Sw skifta

Gaw 1467

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scholes adj., n. (1) shoeless; (2) soles

(1) (adj.) ‘shoeless’;  (2) (n. pl.) ‘shoes with long pointed toes’; (3) (n. pl.) ‘thin plates (part of the horse’s armour)’; (4) (n. pl.) ‘protections under and inside the thighs’; (5) (n. pl.) ‘supports covering the sole of the foot’.

(1) skólauss 'shoeless'; (4) skál ‘bowl, hollow; scales’

DD2

(1) *skōhaz; (3) *skullōn; (4) *skēl-

(1) Far skógvur, Icel skór, Norw sko, Dan sko, Sw sko; (3) Sw skolla; (4) Far skál, Icel skál, Norw skål, Dan skål, Sw skål

Gaw 160

View
sour adj. (1) sour

'bitter, acid, vile'

(2) saurr (n.) 'mud, dirt', saurigr (adj.) 'filthy, dirty'

DD2

(1) *sūraz; (2) *saur-

(2) Far seyrur, Icel saur, Norw saur, ODan sør, OSw sör-, Sw dial sör

Cl 192, 1036

View
*sparred v. (1) spar; (2) speed

(1) (*sparred) ‘sprang’;  (2) (*sped(e) (him)) ‘hastened’

(1a) sparra 'to stretch out (the legs)’, sperrask ‘to struggle (by putting the feet out)’; (1b) sparra ‘to raise the spars in a house; to stretch out the legs like rafters’, sperrask ‘to struggle by putting the feet out like spars’

DD2

(1a) *sparrjan-; (1b) *sparr-; (2) *spōdi-

(1a) Far sperra, Icel sperra, Norw sperra, Dan spærre, Sw spärra

Gaw 1444

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spenne (2) n. (1) spen; (2) spinney (1) ‘fence, hedge’;  (2) (a) ‘thorn-hedge’;  (b) ‘thorn bush, thorn hedge, thorn thicket’ (1) spenni 'clasp' D2 (1) *span(n)- Far spenni, Icel spenni, Norw spenne, Sw spänne Gaw 1709, 1896
 
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*þwarte-knot n. (1) thwart; (2) thwarl

(1) (*þwarte-knot) ‘cross knot’;  (2) (þwarle knot) ‘tight knot’, ‘intricate knot’, ‘twirled knot’

(1) þverr ‘athwart, across, transverse’

DD2

(1) *þwerxwaz; (2b) *þwer- or *þwar-; (2c) *xwerƀan-

(1) Far tvørur, Icel þver, Norw tver, ODan thwær, Dan tvær, OS þvær, þvar

Gaw 194
 

View
*vntyl prep. (1) until

(1) (*vntyl) ‘until’;  (2) (vntyʒtel) ‘unrestraint, lightheartedness’ (dalten ~ ‘revelled’) or ‘trifling talk’

(1) undz, unz ‘till that, till, until’ + til ‘to, until (etc.)'

DD2

(1) *unða + *til-; (2) *tuhtiz

(1) Icel uns; Far til, Icel til, Norw til, Dan til, Sw till, til

Gaw 1114

View
caggen v. (2) cadge

'tie up'

(1) kǫgurr (n.) ‘quilt’

DD1c

(1) *kag-

(1) Icel kögur, Sw dial kaghring, kafring

Pe 512; Cl 1254; WA 1521

View
roþeled (1) v. (2) rathel (1) 'heated, broiled'; (2) 'brought together' (1) rjóðr (adj.) 'ruddy, red; (2) raða ‘to set in order’ DD2 (1) *reuda- (1) Icel rjóður, Norw rjod- (2) Far raða, Icel raða, Norw rada, Sw rada Cl 59 View
roþum adj., n. (2) rotten

(1) 'redness'; (2) 'rottenness'

(1a) roðna (v.) 'redden'; (1b) roþmi (n.) 'redness'; (2) rotinn (adj.) 'rotten'

D2

(1) *rod-; (2) *rut-

(1a) Far rodna, Icel roðna, Norw rodna, Sw rodna, Sw dial rudna; (1b) Dan rødme, OSw rodme, rudhme; (2) Far rotin, Icel rotinn, Norw roten, Dan rådden, Sw rutten, Sw dial rotin

Cl 1009

View
glauereʒ v. ?glaver

'deceives'

cp. glaðr (adj.) 'glad'

DD1

?*glaða-

Pe 688

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nekard n. ?niggard ?'weakling, mean person' cp. hnøggr (adj.) DD2 ?*xnaww- Far nøggur, Icel hnøggur, Norw nøgg, Dan nygger, Sw njugg, Sw dial nagg, nägg WA 1742 View
typped adj., v. ?tipped

(1) ?'consummate'; (2) 'fallen'

(1) typpa 'to tip, top', cp. typptr (adj.) 'tipped, laced'

D2

(1) Icel typpa, Norw typpa; (2) Sw tippa

Pat 77

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adill v. addle 'acquire, earn (for themselves)' ǫðlask 'to win, gain as property, get for oneself' C3c *aþalōjan- Icel öðlast, Norw odla WA 3191 View
adreʒ adv. adreigh ‘away, back’ drjúgr 'abundant, sufficient, lasting; supportive staunch, persistent (etc.)' CC3ac *dreug- Far dr(j)úgvur, Icel drjúgur, Norw drjug, Sw dryg Cl 71 View
agayn adv., prep. again (adv.) 'in return'; (prep.) 'against, facing' (í) gegn 'in opposition, against, in return'  A1*c *gagni- Far ígen, Icel gegn,  Dan igen, OSw gen Gaw 384, 1638; Pe 28, 326, 1199, etc.; Cl 266, 826; WA 50, 82, 170 etc. View
agaynʒ prep. against

'against, upon'

(í) gegn 'in opposition, against, in return'

A1*c

*gagni-

Far ígen, Icel gegn, Dan igen, OSw gen

Pe 79; Cl 611, 1711

View
algate adv. algate, algates 'at any rate' gata ‘way, path, road’ B2 *gatwōn  Far gata, gøta, Icel gata, Norw gate, gote, Dan gade, Sw gata Gaw 141 View
alofte adv., prep. aloft

‘up, above, at the top, on; on horseback’

loft ‘air, atmosphere, sky, heaven; space; loft, upper room; balcony’

C1

*luft-a-n

Far loft, luft, Icel loft, lopt, Norw loft, luft, Dan loft, luft, Sw loft, luft

Gaw 194, 435, 572 etc.; Cl 1183; Pat 447; Erk 49; WA 858

View
aloʒ adv. alow

'quietly'

lágr ‘low’

A1*

*lēga-

Far lágur, Icel lágur, Norw låg, Dan lav, Sw låg

Cl 670

View
omys adv. amiss 'amiss' (á) miss 'so as to miss' C4 *miss- Icel mis, Norw miss WA 4326 View
angardez adj., n. angard

‘i.e. excessive, arrogant’

ágjarn ‘covetous, greedy; ambitious; pugnacious, belligerent, eager to fight’; gort ‘bragging’; gera, gør(v)a ‘to make, do’

FCCC3c

Icel gjarn, Sw dial gärnt; Far ger-, Icel ger, ODan gør, Dan gør-, OSw gor, gör

Gaw 681

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anger n. anger 'harm, sorrow; anger' angr ‘sorrow, resentment, distress; repentance; tribulation, injury’  C1 *angez-  Far angur, Icel angur, Norw anger, Dan, anger, Sw ånger Gaw 2344; Pe 343; Cl 572, 1602; Pat 411, 481 View
angirs v. anger 'grows angry' angra 'to distress, grieve, trouble (etc.)' C1 *angez-  Far angra, Icel angra, Norw angra, ODan angre, Dan angre, OSw angra, Sw ångra WA 837 View
angre adj. angry

'caustic'

angr (n.) ‘sorrow, resentment, distress; repentance; tribulation, injury’

C1

*angez-

Far angur, Icel angur, Norw anger, Dan anger, Sw ånger

Cl 1035

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ar v. are 'are' cp. eru 'are' CCC5 *ar-  Gaw 207, 280, 1094, etc.; Pe 384, 402, 628 etc.; Cl 8, 15, 55, etc.; Pat 13, 15; Erk 164; WA 1, 12, 14 etc. View
arwes n. arrow 'arrows' ǫr 'arrow' CC1 *arx-  Far ørv, Icel ör, OSw arf Gaw 1160, 1455; WA 1066 View
askez n. ash

'ashes'

aska ‘ashes’

CC2

*askōn

Far øska, Icel aska, Norw oske, Dan aske, ask, Sw aska

Gaw 2; Cl 626, 736, 1010 etc.; Pat 380; WA 4180

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as-tit adv. astite, as tite (adv. phr.) 'at once; in a moment' tíðr ‘frequent, usual, customary’ A3*c *tīða-  Far tíð, Icel tíð, tíður, Norw tid, Dan tid, Sw tid Gaw 31, 1210; Pe 645; WA 693 View
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