adj., v. (pp.)

(1) ?'consummate'; (2) 'fallen'

(Modern English ?tipped)


This adj. is used in the context of Pat 77 to refer to the traytoures of Nineveh, to whom God would send Jonah. Two identifications have been proposed, both possibly borrowed from ON, but neither provides an entirely satisfactory explanation of the sense: (1) Typped here is usually interpreted as showing a figurative sense extension 'consummate' (Ekwall (1912: 165-6), AW, Gollancz, Anderson and MED) of the ptcp. adj. < ME tippen 'adorn, reinforce (with a tip)', best explained as a borrowing from ON, cp. OIcel (poetic) typpa 'to tip, top', and the ptcp. adj. typptr 'tipped, laced'. It should be noted, however, that while this is formally attractive, there are no close parallels for the usage of tipped in this sense, which is surmised from context (thus OED more conservatively gives 'meaning uncertain'). (2) Vantuono's proposed identification with type (v.) is also formally possible, but does not make for a very convincing reading of Pat 77, again requiring an unparalleled metaphorical sense.

PGmc Ancestor

Proposed ON Etymon (OIcel representative)

(1) typpa 'to tip, top', cp. typptr (adj.) 'tipped, laced'
(ONP (1) cp. typptr (adj.))

Other Scandinavian Reflexes

(1) Icel typpa, Norw typpa; (2) Sw tippa

OE Cognate

Phonological and morphological markers

Summary category



There are no other attestations of typped with either sense, but (1) occurs with its more literal sense first in Chaucer and then in a handful of scattered 14c. and 15c. texts; and (2) in names and texts from the 14c. onwards, mostly from the N., incl. WA.

Occurrences in the Gersum Corpus

Pat 77

On the sense in the context of Pat 77, see further etymological discussion and Anderson 77n.


MED tippen (v.2) , OED tipped, tipt (adj. 1) , de Vries typpa, Mag. typpa; (2) see type (v.).